da capo aria
most common for of aria in Scalratti’s operas and cantatas
became standard aria form in the 18th century for opera and cantata alike because it offered great flexibility in expression
takes its name from the words “da capo” (from the head) placed at the clse of the 2nd section so performers knew to return to the beginning of the ario and repeat the first section (ABA form)
a semi-dramatic piece for several singers and small orchestra, usually written for a special occasion
midway between cantata and opera
Alessandro Stradella was an innovative composer of operas and cantatas and one the first to write serenatas
San Petronio
an important center for instrumental ensemble music, which was often played during church services
the music director of the Church of San Petronio
published many collections of sonatas to be used in church, including the first sonata for trumpet
used stylistic diversity using both Palestrina’s old contrapuntal style and newer concerted styles featuring basso continuo and solo singers
Antonio Stradivari
most prominent member of his universally renowned family of instrument makers
more or supervised over 1,100 instruments
violin perfectiion: has not been surpass to this day
making: pine on the front and maple on back, f holes maximize sound, slightly rounded (tiniest variation in the thickness of the wood affected resonance), varnish to keep out dirt and moisture
trio sonata
most common instrumentation after 1670 for both church and chamber sonatas
2 treble instruments (usually violins) with basso continuo
new genre that established orchestra as leading instrumental ensemble
instrumental version of concertato medium (unified contrasting forces)
florid melody over firm bass
based on tonality
multiple movements with contrasting tempos, moods and figurations
orchestral concerto
work in several movements that emphasized first violin and bass
concerto grosso
set a small en semble (concertino) of solo instruments against a large ensemble (concerto grosso)
purpose of tutti and ripieno
for full orchestra in concerto grosso and concerto for one or more soloists
“town pipers”
most cities in Germany and Austria employed town musicians who had the exclusive right to provide music in the city
collegium musicum
association of amateurs from the educated middle class who gathered to play and sing together for their own pleasure or to hear professionals in private performances
imitative counterpoint that replaced ricercare, fantasia, capriccio, etc.
sharper melodic character and livelier rhythm than ricercare themes
has exposition and episodes
set of independent voices in a fugue entering with the theme one by one
in a fugue, second entrance of the subject; normally beings on dominant
periods of free counterpoint in a fugue between statements of the subject
choral prelude
form based on a chorale tune
applied to any chorale-based organ work
denotes a short piece in which melody can be recognized only once
a single variation on a chorale
unusual tuning of the violin strings to facilitate the playing of particular notes or chords
used in Biber’s Mystery Sonata’s
By 1660, two types of sonatas emerged:
sonata da camera (chamber sonata) and sonata da chiesa (church sonata)
sonata da camera
featured a series of stylized dances, often beginning with prelude
sonata da chiesa
contained mostly abstract movements, often included one or more that used dance rhythms or binary form but were not titled as dances
could substitute things in Mass Propers in church
The majority of Corelli’s church sonatas consist of
four movements
first composer who reputation rests solely on instrumental music
Arcangelo Corelli
Giuseppe Torelli
composed first published concertos
The first opera house in Germany was in which city?