musical texture of a single voice or line, without accompaniment of any kind. ancient greek strictly monophonic.
Ancient greek wind instrument. Many different kinds, most were double reeded but some were simply pipes.
doctrine of ethos
music was capable of arousing listeners to certain kinds of emotions and behaviors. different modes were thought to produce different moods, according to plato and aristotle.
Divinge Office
series of 8 services held daily in monastic communities from dawn through the middle of the night, consisting musically of the chanting of psalms and hymns. it was a fixed schedule observed by monks. could be 20 minutes to 2 hours.
psalm tone
each tone corresponds to one of the 8 musical modes. psalms recited syllabically to one of the psalm tones. could be antiphonically or between two halves of the chorus.
in plainchant settings of the Alleluia within the Propers of the Mass, the long melisma on the final syllable of the word Alleluia.
liber usualis
literally, Book of Use, an anthology of many different kinds of plainchant for both the Mass and the Office.
a musical or textual addition to an existing chant. most important source of new repertory after the 9th century. added at beginning or end of a chant or into the chant itself. original chant remained intact.
liturgical drama
dramas nevause the parts were represented by indivuduals and liturgical bc the presentation was part of the service of worship. sometimes presented as trope. Hildegard von Bingen’s freely composed drama wasn’t connected with any existing chant.
Element of the Mass Propers, authorized for special feast days, appearing after the Alleluia. began as a texted trope, and eventually became a separate element of the liturgy in its own.
Road performers. wandering minstrels who went from town to town to provide entertainment for payment. sang songs in latin that satirized moral teachings of the church.
Carmina Burana
collection of songs in latin that crossed linguistic boundaries. collection of texts about gambling, drinking, and erotic love.
poet composers of southern france created new texts and melodies. wrote songs in Occitan. music to lyrics by troubadours is only available to a tenth of the 2500 known poems. most active in 12 and 13th centuries. include love songs, laments, pastorals and dialogues. most are strophic.
poet composers like troubadours, in northern france that composed new texts and melodies. written in medieval french. 2100 texts and music preserved. most active in 12 and 13th century. love songs, laments, pastorals, and dialogues. strophic.
chanson de geste
Song of Deed. Longest form of troubadour/trouveres works. an epic account of chivalrous accommplishments.
singers of Minne, or courtly love. German speaking lands, devolped their own rep of songs. Included poet composer Tannhauser. chivalry, the praise of god, and the praise of noblewomen are recurrent themes in their songs. many written in bar form.
bar form
Many minnelider are in bar form, consisting of two musically identical statemtns and a final closing statement. creating AAB pattern. Walther von der Vogelweide’s Palastinalied is in bar form.
discovered the relationship between musical sound and number. passed by blacksmith one day and noticed hammers creating different pitches. octave, fifth and fourth. these intervals were considered perfect. considered mathematical basis of sound a fundamental law governing all physical bodies in universe. harmony of the speheres keeps planets and stars from colliding.
Sovereign of the Roman Empire. sought to reimpose strong centralized authority. sought to standardize forms of christian worship. a unified liturgy along with unified body of music would help central authoity.
Gregory the Great
Pope reigned from 590 to 604 had been responsible not only for promoting the diffusion of Roman liturgy, but for composing chants himself. this early consolidation of chant wasn’t universally accepted. not until charlemagne.
Guido of Arezzo
helped create systematic and consistent application of the eight mode system in 11th century. after them every chant assigned to a mode. believed to have developed the Guidonian hand.
Nokter Balbulus
monks began to embellish plainchant with some melodies. Balulus said practice arose from a need to make chants easier to memorize. wrote the prosulae in a Book of Hymns
Hildegard von Bingen
Ordo virtutum is an example of freely composed drama not connected with any existing chant. composed more than any other musician before the 14th century. organized her compositions into two large collections.
music of the spheres
assumed there was music between the earth and the sun bc earth was .25 size of sun. based on pythagoras’ discovery of music’s relationship to numbers. octave is 2:1, fifth is 3:2, fourth is 4:3
oral transmission of chant and its consequences
ability of singers to memorize the chant rep without notations helps ecplain why notation itself was so slow to develop. monks sang them on a regular basis and their preservation represents a remarkable feat of collective memory.
development of pitch notation
during the 11th century, scribes began aligning neumes according to pitch above and below an imaginary line. these heightened neumes proved a better sense of pitches. eventually developed into a 4 line staff with a celf where C or F are.
wrote large quantities of organa for the chants of the liturgical year. prototypical composer of Notre Dame organum. focused on responsorial chants. he left the chants monophonic but wrote two voice organa for portions of the chants performed by soloists.
credited with adding a third voice, triplum and quadruplum to organa for feasts. he is a younger contemporary of Leonin. Wrote works of astonishing length, 20 minutes.
Franco of Cologne
Writer most widely credited with setting down mensural notaion, measured. Assigned specific ryhthmic meanings to each of the various note shapes. provided composers with a system of greater flexibility.
Petrus de Cruce
refined the Franconian system around 1280 to allow for greater subdivision of the breve. allowed for as many as nine semebreves within the duration of a single bereve. also introduced the minim and semiminim. minim could be a third or half of semibreve, but semiminim always equal to half a minim.
Philippe de Vitry
Composer who rarely associated his name with his music. Term ars nova is title of a treatise written around 1320 and is attributed to Vitry. Also codified use of mensuration signs, or whethere subdivision is perfect or impferfect.
Guillaume de Machaut
Wrote the only polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary by a specific composer in 14c. Included the contratenor. Majority of works are secular.
Francesco Landini
His piece Ecco La Primavera for two voices exemplifies the ballata genre. Syllabic text. His surviving works include 140 ballate for 2 or 3 voices.
vox organalis vs. vox principalis
the plainchant melody is called the vox principalis and the additional voice is called the vox organalis. simple parallel organum has the organal voice run a fifth above the principal. Some moved contrary. Another step wsa development of several notes in the organalis over a single note in the chant, resulting in melismatic organum.
tenor vs. contratenor
lower voice in organum known as the tenor. refered to the voice that held the chant. Contratenor is isorhythmic and occupies same range as tenor. both only had one color, but contratenor has long talea.
duplum vs. motetus vs. triplum vs. quadruplum
the added second voice in organum is duplum. triplum is 3 added voices and quadruplum is 4. in measured organum, duplum moved note against note with organum, in free organum, it moved rapidly against slow notes of orginal chant. Motetus is texted duplum
oblique vs. contrary motion
contrary motion is when each line moves the opposite direction. this became preferred over parallel after 1100. oblique organum moves in the same direction at different intervals.
Musica Enchiriadis
Musical Handbook features first reference to polyphony in medieval times. written durin g the 9th century. includes examples of organum
Notre Dame Organum
Leonin is the prototypical composer of this. primarily responsorial chants, solo and chorus.Chroal portions were monophonically, but soloists had lengthy two voice organa. organal sections are either melismatic or measured.
clausula vs. substitute clausula
Clausula are brief polyphonic sections of discant organum that could be substituted at will into the appropriate section of organum. Not and independent composition. Substitute clausula could be replaced by variants.
magnus liber organi
The Great Book Of Organum, a sizeable collection of polyphony for use in the liturgical year in Notre Dame. feature two three and four part organa.
mensural notation
Franco of Colgne sett down principles of this system. this system assigned specific rhythmic meanings to each of the various note shapes. retained the note shapes and many of the conventions of the rhythimic nodes. written between 1260 and 1280.
mensuration signs
long, breve, semibreve. each of the notes could be divided into smaller units of two or three. triple was considered perfect, duple imperfect.
ars nova
new art, became a label for much of 14c french music. title of a treatise w attributed to Phillppe de Vitry. evidence that he wrote it is quite thin, though he was still a renown composer.
Roman de Fauvel
contains 34 motets, most of which are isorhythmic. ars nova style evident in a number of works composed for this Story. satirical allegory.
Ars subtilior
the more subtle art, composer viewed music as an object of contemplation that could engage the intellect. Cordier is one.
rapid fire passages in which a melodic line bounces back and forth between different voices. popularized during the ars nova.
italian music of the 14c. includes the ballata, madrigal. many scholars seapk of an Italian ars nova.
squarcialupi codex
sumptuous musical manuscript copied in Italy during the first half of 15c,. provides not only th enames but even portraits of several 14c composers whose works it includes. shows composers more as artists.
perfect/imperfect tempus vs. major/minor prolation
perfect tempus is the triple division. imperfect is duple divisions. major prolation was additional division into 3 and minor was additional division into 2.
John XXII’s objections to Ars Nova
condemned it as decadent and dangerous. notes of small value disturbed the divine office. he acknowledged the need for polyphony but plainchant should be left intact.
Formes Fixes
fixed forms or structural patterns. three had established in secular song in 14c. the ballade, virelai and rondeau. ballade had three strophes of seven or eight lines, last of which is a refrain. virelai follows AbbaA. refrain sung at beginning and end of each strophe. typically syllabic. rondeau consists of 8 lines, ABaAabAB. cantus and tenor are retrogrades.
Medieval counterpoint
13c and 14c had free trreatment of dissonance. lots of parallel 5 and 8, few 3, no chords or triads. avoided tritones by sharpening two pitches to create double leading tone cadence.
duple vs. triple division of the beat
triple division was considered perfect, major, and holy. tempus is relationship of breve to semibreve. three semi breves to each breve. prolatio is relation ship of semibreve to the minim. 3 minim = 1 semi
14c french music vs. 14c italian music
both had principal vocal genres during 14c. france had the ballade, virelai, and rondeau. italy had the ballata, madrigal and caccia. refrain framed each strope in ballata and virelai.