Four changes in 11th century that would give Western music many of its basic characteristics:
1. Written composition slowly replaced improvisation as a way of creating musical works
2. The invention of precise musical notation made it possible to write music in a definitive form. Result: composition and performance became separate acts.
3. Music began to be more structured and made subject to principles of order: theory of eight modes, rules for consonance and rhythm.

Dissonance – notes creating tension that required resolution
Consonance – notes that create repose or resolve tension
• Perfect and Imperfect consonances
Perfect: unison, 4th, 5th, and 8va
Imperfect: 3rd and 6th

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4. Polyphony (many voices) began to replace monophony.

a type of polyphony produced by simultaneous performance of a melody and one or more variants of the same melody.
singing in 8vas of same melody.
Musica enchiriadis, (Handbook of Music) and contemporary treatise Scholia enchiriadis.
End of 9th century, first clear description of polyphony in treatise
(Plural – organa) organized or planned music
Vox principalis:
plainsong melody
Vox organalis:
voice that duplicated plainsong melody at interval of 4th or 5th.
(meeting) convergence on the unison at the end.
Winchester Troper
two 11th century manuscripts containing oldest large collection of pieces in organum; also consists of chants of Winchester Cathdral
Types of organa:
parallel organum, free organum (contrary, oblique), florid organum, notre dame organum