Where first discovered, name this book?
Western Music (unlike music of China, Japan, India, and Korea) cultivates Polyphony

First discovered documented polyphony found in Benedictince Abbey in Germany in 890s
A music treatise called “Musica Enchiriadas”

Musica Enchiriadas
book by Abbot Hogar (d.906)

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Describes Organum
–purpose was to teach singers to improvise polyphonic Music on the spot!

Parallel Organum
What are the voices, how do they move? avoid a certain interval (which one)?
Voices move in Lockstep
1. Vox Principalis- preexisting chant to be enhanced
2. Vox Originallis- New improvised line

To avoid tritone, Hogar advises organal voice to stay the same

Guido de Arezzo & John of St. Gall
What did they say on Polyphony?
Guido’s “Micrologus”
–19 chapters dedicated to Polyphony
John’s “De Musica”
1. Encourages contrary motion
2. Vox Principalis should be the LOWER line in Organum
Winchester Troper
Comes from England, is a collection of trope.
Written in unheightened neumes, as it is 30 years before invention of staff
150 2 voice organa, all to be improvised
Aquitanian polyphony
What are it’s other names, how does it work?
Many come from Anquitanian region of SW France. Also called St. Marital polyphony
12th Century
Many are sustained-tone organum, the bottom voice holds a not, upper voice florishes with fast moving line
Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. Where? How important to music?
where the Codex Calixitinus of 1150 is located
Codex Calixtinus
20 polyphonic pieces, mostly for mass and vespers
First manuscript to ascribe composers names to pieces of music