A point on the string that does not vibrate.
Absolute music
instrumental music free of any explicit connection with nonmusical images
Program music
instrumental music that attempts to depict nonmusical ideas, images, or events
point of arrival
conjunct melodic motion
melodic motion that is primarily stepwise
disjunct melodic motion
melodic motion that is primarily through leaps, it leads to excitement
repetition of a short melodic figure on a higher or lower pitch, it must come in the same instrument or voice and follow immediately after the first statement
repetition of a melodic figure in a different instrument or voice
musical texture
the relationship among the various parts of a piece occuring simultaneously
a single line of music with no harmony
a melody line with an accompaniment. the accompaniment generally moves faster or slower, it must be clear that the melody is dominant
homo-rhythmic texture
if the melody and accompaniment move at the same speed a series of chords result
several melodies are played or sung at once
non-imitative polyphony
two or more independent, different melodies are played at once
imitative polyphony
the same melodic line appears in different instruments, but at different times
Medieval music
development of musical style bound up with the church
multiple notes per syllable
text’ ABA
music:3-fold repetition within each section
word repetition,musical repetition, melismas
Hildegard Von Bingen
Given to church as tithe
she composes new chants, ecstatic musical style
disjunct melodic motion
many melismas
inexact repition
from french word “mot”
the tenor holds the melody, however it is not a newly composed melody,
simple rhythm, with no text

the upper parts have more complex rhythms, they have text:different in each part.
Only occurs in triple mete, most commonly uses 4ths and 5ths

Cantus Firmus
A previously composed melody used as the basis for a new piece
14th Century
Was referred to as “Ars Nova”–New Art
Major Changes:
first time duple meter notated
isorythm used in tenor
is a musical technique that arranges a fixed pattern of pitches with a repeating rhythmic pattern.
alternation of note and rest
mostly syllabic, the end Amen is melismatic
Gregorian Chant
pre 9th century
monophonic;no rhythmic notation; limited range
New Chants
12th century
composers continued to add to the monophonic repertoire
Hildegard Von Bingen 1098-1179
Secular Songs (non religious)
early 15th century
use of 3rds and 6ths-makes music sound sweeter and more modern
Guillaume Dufay
Lived in northern france Bungundy
lived in italy for awhile
wrote in french, latin and italian
Vergine Bella
italian text by Petrarch, composed by Dufay
sonnet:7 and 11 syllable lines
through composed
simplicity:beauty derived from nature, emphasis on human endeavor
music’s purpose to move the passions, it emphasizes text with sweet harmonies
musical setting of a secular french poem
the chanson rhythm is “long-short-short-long”
Music Printing
Ottaviano Petrucci
first print of polyphonic music in 1501
very fast dance in compound duple
jumpy, very athletic
slow, in simple duple, uses chanson rhythm
dance in a quick triple