basso ostinato
Italian for “persistent bass” aka ground bass
pattern in bass that repeats while the melody above it changes
common pattern: descending tetrachord used by Monteverdi to express inescapable sorrow
aka ciaccona
conveyed opposite emotion of basso ostinato
vivacious dance-song from Latin America into Spain then Italy
one of the first types of music be brought from the New World to Europe
refrain was a simple repeating pattern of chords played on guitar
new genre of vocal chamber music that emerged in Italy during the 17th century
“to be sung”
by mid 17th century, it meant a secular composition with continuo using four or more voices
air de cour
court air
The most important genre of secular vocal music in France
homophonic, strophic song for 4-5 voices or solo voice with lute accompaniment
written by composers associated with French royal court
mostly syllabic with simple yet elegantly arching melodies
Barbara Strozzi
born in Venice
Her father Giulio Strozzi nurtured her ambitions as a composer
Published 8 collections of vocal music
One of the most prolific composers of vocal chamber music of the century
She published more cantatas than any other other composer of the time
stile antico
“old style”
coexisted with stile moderno
old contrapuntal style
over time it was modernized
composers added a basso continuo and major-minor tonality replaced church modes
Gradus ad Parnassum
Johann Joseph Fux wrote this treatise to codify this quasi-Palestrinian counterpoint
remained the most influential textbook on counterpoint for the next 2 centuries
small sacred concerto
song of one or more solists accompanied by organ and often by one or two violins
small churches could afford this
Lodovico Viadana was a pioneer in using this for church music
large-scale sacred concerto
used to celebrate major feast days
often used cori spezzati
ex: Gabrieli’s In Ecclesiis
some had massive climaxes
cori spezzati
divided choirs
used by composers in large-scale sacred concertos to celebrate major feast days
new genre of religious dramatic music that emerged in 17th century Rome
combined narrative, dialogue, and commentary
Italian for “prayer hall”
like operas, oratorios used recitative and arias
different from operas: subject matter was religious, seldom ever staged, action was described rather than played out, there was a narrative
librettos were in Latin or Italian
musical setting based on a biblical narrative
prominent genre in the Lutheran tradition
most common type of historia
musical setting of the story of Jesus’ crucifixion
Schutz wrote 3 following the accounts of Matthew, Luke, and John
Fiori musicali
Frescobaldi’s set of 3 organ masses, each had all the music an organist would play at Mass
published this collection in open score rather than on 2 staves (usual keyboard notation): he said in his preface that an open score weeded out the true gold of virtuosos from the ignorant
improvisatory piece played on organ (service music) or harpsichord (chamber music)
most can be played on either but there is a greater reliance on sustained tones and unusual harmonies with organ
most important composer of this was Frescobaldi
the one in the 17th century was typically a series of composition for organ or harpsichord in which one subjet (theme) is continuously developed in imitation
an imitative work on a larger scale than the ricercare and had a more complex formal organization
leading composers were Sweelinck and Scheidt
In England, the leading genre was the imitative fantasia called a fancy
imitative piece for keyboard or ensemble in several contrasting sections
more lively character than ricercare
adapted from chanson
used in 17th century to refer broadly to any piece for instruments
resembled canzona
scored for one or more melody instruments (usually violins) with basso continuo
imitated modern expressive vocal style
one of the earliest sonatas for solo violin and continuo is Marini’s Sonata IV… from Op. 8
by mid 17th century, the canzona and sonata merged and sonata stood for both
parts or divisions
set of variations on a melody or bass line
set of pieces linked together into a single work
during the Baroque, meant a set of stylized dance pieces
ground bass
a pattern frequently employed in the 17th century in which the bass line repeats while the melody changes
by the 17th century, this was applied to secular compositions for solo voices with continuo based on a lyrical or quasi-dramatic text
air de cour
the most important genre of 17th century secular vocal music in France
homophonic, strophic song for four to five voices
Barbara Strozzi
published more cantatas than any other composer of her time
stile antico
the compositional style of Palestrina
Cento concerti ecclesiastici
the first volume of sacred music printed with basso continuo
Giacomo Carissimi
leading composer of Latin oratorios
Lucrezia Vizzana
published Componimenti musicali, a collection of twenty motets predominantly for one or two soprano voices with basso continuo
sacred dramatic music that combined narrative, dialogue, and commentary
Opella nova
following treatise published by Johann Schein is significant in that it illustrates a blending of Lutheran chorale traditions with the modern Italian style
Cantiones sacre
collection by Heinrich Schutz contains polyphonic Latin motets, enlivened by harmonic novelties and madrigal-like word painting
Symphoniae sacrae
collection by Heinrich Schutz presents concerted Latin motets for various small combinations of voices and instruments
prominent in the Lutheran tradition, this genre contains musical setting based on a biblical narrative
Leon Modena
humanist scholar, rabbi, and cantor that promoted the use of polyphonic as early as 1694 at the synagoge of Ferrera
Who was the most important composer of toccatas and one of the first to focus his attentions on instrumental music?
Girolamo Frescobaldi
Johann Froberger
composer whose technique of alternating improvisatory passages with sections of imitative counterpoint was the model for the development of the toccata and fugue
Samuel Schiedt
published tabulatura nova, a collection of German fantasias in which Italian practice of writing each voice on a separate staff was employed