Polish trad. dance in 3 w/accent on 2nd or 3rd beat.
idee fixe = motiv
idee fixe = motiv
Fryderyk Chopin

1810 – 1849

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Character Pieces (Nocturns), Etudes, Mazurkas

Giacomo Meyerbeer

1791 – 1864

Grand Opera Composer


Hector Berlioz

1803 – 1869


Programmatic music w/idee fixe drived cyclicism

Recurrence of a theme in several movements of a multi-movement composition.
Character Piece
Brief to moderate length work that establishes a mood or style.
A Character Piece with an etherial, nighttime mood.
Musical Capitol of Europe 1830s and 1840s



Louis Philippe monarch

Franz Schubert

1797 – 1828


song –> major genre


all genres except concerto


1. a narrative poem or its musical setting


2. traditional, usually strophic, song for a long story/poem


3. modern music: a love song with a slow tempo


Franz Schubert




Through Composed


Franz Schubert




Through Composed


“Nahe des Geliebten”


Franz Schubert





Symphonie Fantastique

4th mvmt

“March to the Scaffold”

Hector Berlioz



“Nocturn in Db Major”

Opus 27, No. 2

Fryderyk Chopin




from Les nuits d’ete


Hector Berlioz






genre of popular French song prevalent in the 1800s


simple and usually strophic




genre of popular French song with more complexity and sophistication than a romance.


popular in the later 1800s

Hugo Riemann
Invented Functional Harmony Theory as a way to describe western music
Breitkopf & Hartel
First to publish a “complete works” edition of a composer (Bach)
Gewanhaus Orchestra
Leipzig’s residential orchestra in the 19th C.

Rose to fame under Mendelssohn’s direction.

Felix Mendelssohn
Kapellmeister of Gewandaus Orch 1835-47
symphonies,concertos,oratorios,chamber and incidental music
musically conservative
Common Practice Period musical form is based off of two ideas…
contrast and repitition
Piano Trio in D Minor

First Mvmt. Molto allegro ed agitato

Felix Mendelssohn


Structure: classical;romantic virtuosity

Austrian waltz-like dance
genre favored by Schubert
Type of dance
favored by Chopin in piano music
Incidental Music
Music to accompany theatrical productions
Robert Schumann
composer, writer/critic, professional pianist
mostly piano music and lieder
Clara Schumann
professional pianist
father was Robert’s piano teacher
mainstay of family when Robert went nuts
Gioachino Rossini
ultra lyrical voices
defined the Classical Opera
Opera house/Theater manager
Introduzione (Introduction)
lengthy, multi-sectional operatic piece that that mixes contrasting passages of choral ensemble and solo singing.
Entrance aria
Fast paced operatic piece with lots of show
A fast end to a slower operatic piece
Rossini Crescendo
A series of crescendos, shorter phrases, denser voicing and faster harmonic rhythm.
Giuseppe Verdi
Moved Rossini’s classical opera into the Romantic period.
Teatro alla Scala
World class opera house in Milan
Casa di Riposo per Musicisti
A retirement home for musicians in Milan founded by Giuseppe Verdi in 1896
“Resurgence” – Italian nationalist movement from 1814 (Napoleon’s defeat) to 1870 (Italy’s alliance with Sardinia)
The Italian drinking song in an opera
5 Major Italian Opera Composers of the 19th Century
Rossini, Bellini, Donizzetti, Verdi, Puccini
Steven Foster
Famous American pop composer
beautiful, lyrical melodies
parlor songs
Camptown Races, Old Folks at Home, Oh Susannah
The Minstrel Show
Most popular staged diversion in America in 19th C.
Opera Parodies
Dance Music
Racial Stereotypes – Stock Characters
Vincenzo Bellini
long lyrical vocal lines
Bellini Works
10 Operas – all serious
“Norma” – Druid Priestess who falls in love
“La Sonnambula” – The Sleepwalker
Gaetano Donizzetti
medolies captured sense of the character, mood or setting
avoided strong cadences so audience wouldn’t interrupt
seamless musical flow
Donizzetti Works
More than 65 Operas
“Lucia di Lammermoor” 1835 – serious, based on novel by Sir Walter Scott
“La Fille du Regiment” 1840 – Comic
“Don Pasquale” 1843
Puccini Works
La Boheme – Rodolfo and Mimi fall in love, separate, then come together again right before Mimi dies.
Madama Butterfly
Tristan und Isolde Plot
(Wagner)Tristan and Isolde fall in love then become estranged. Tristan marries another Isolde (the White Hands). Tristan dies in battle, Isolde #1 finds him then dies of a broken heart.
Tristan und Isolde
Richard Wagner (1859)
Barbiere di Siviglia
Rossini (1775)
comic opera
musical numbers connected by simple recitative
Barbiere di Siviglia Plot
(Rossini) Count Almaviva puts on a series of disguises to see Rosina without being detected by Dr. Bartolo. Almaviva is assisted by Figaro (the barber of Seville) and in the end, successfully tricks Dr. Bartolo and marries Rosina.
Nabucco Plot
(Verdi – Opera Seria) Biblical. Ismaele, a Jew, loves Fenena, daughter of King Nebuchadnezzar. In the ensuing conflicts, Abigaille, supposedly Nabucco’s daughter, usurps Nabucco. Nabucco converts to Judaism and defeats Abigaille.
Rigoletto Plot
(Verdi)Rigoletto, jester to the Duke, calls a curse upon himself. His daughter, Gilda, falls in love with the unfaithful Duke. Rigoletto pays Sparafucile, an assassin, to kill the Duke, but when Gilda learns of the plot, she sacrifices herself for her love. Rigoletto finds out and is sorrowful.
Il Trovatore Plot
(Verdi – Opera Seria) Manrico loves Leonora whom the Conte di Luna also loves. Manrico is di Luna’s brother but only Azucena, Manrico’s supposed mother knows. In the struggle for Leonora’s hand, di Luna get’s both Azucena and Manrico in his custody and executes Manrico but not before Leonora poisons herself. Azucena tells di Luna he just killed his brother and di Luna ends the opera with an aria in despair.
La Traviata Plot
(Verdi – Opera Seria) Violetta loves Alfredo Germont but Alfredo’s father, Giorgio convinces him to leave her. Alfredo believes that Violetta has betrayed him, but Giorgio rebukes him and she dies in Alfredo’s arms of consumption (TB).
Don Carlos Plot
(Verdi – Grand Opera)Don Carlos and Elizabeth of Valois’ doomed love. She has to marry Carlos’ father, Phillip II. Carlos then goes to Flanders to help free them from their Spanish conquerors. When Carlos returns, his treason puts him in jail. The King wants his son to go free but is pushed by the Grand Inquisitor to fulfill the law. Don Carlos dies in front of his grandfather’s tomb.
Aida Plot
(Verdi – opera seria)Ethiopian slave Aida falls in love with Egyptian military figure, Radames – doomed lovers unified in death when Amneris finds out about their love.
Otello Plot
(Verdi – opera seria) Evil Iago, jealous of Cassio, destroys both Cassio and Otello by convincing Otello that his wife, Desdemona is sleeping with Cassio. Otello murders his innocent wife then kills himself. Iago escapes into the night.
Falstaff Plot
(Verdi – comic opera)Sir Falstaff repeatedly tries to get in bed with Madam Ford. The “Merry Wives of Winsor” make a fool of Falstaff in the end. Fenton and Nannetta marry and fool Dr. Caius who wanted Nannetta.
hell yes