*Roughly Characterizes 19th century music

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*Often set in Nature

*Focuses on emotion over logic 

Mikhail Fokine


*Choreographer for Marinksky Theatre, Russian

*Thought Ballet Should be more “total work of art”

Albert Giraud 


*French Poet who wrote the poems of Schoenberg: Pierrot Lunaire*about moonstruck clown and his antics
Franz Schubert

*Romantic composer, idolized Beethoven

* Variety of forms,although never did a concerto

*lots of character pieces and songs/song cycles 





*Simple Strophic Piece w/ little musical sophistication 

*Most popular type of song in France during 1830s & 40s 

Arturo Toscanini

*Artistic director and conductor at La Scala in Milan 

*Made the theatre internationally recognized 


Giacomo Meyerbeer


*Berlin born composer (1791-1864

*most successful Grand Opera Composer 

*established style with Robert le Diable (Robert the Devil)

*inspired Chopin 

July Revolution

*Revolution in Paris which ousted king charles the tenth

*in response to measures moving towards restricting press, free speech, and benefits/power for aristocracy and the church. move towards absolute monarchy 

*Early 19th century character piece made popular by John Field and later , CHOPIN
German Romantic Opera

*More serious than singspiel, good is pitted against eveil

*characters are types 

*Aura of supernatural 

Carl Maria Von Weber
*German Romantic Opera Composer
*Opera Director in Dresden
*Wrote “Der Freischutz” or “the bewitched Marksman” (uses melodrama in finale of Act 2)
Barber of Seville
*Famous comedy Opera and Rossini’s most famous work
*number Opera, numbers are connected by simple recitatives
* Similar To Mozarts marriage of Figaro
*Milan Publishing firm of Verdi and Puccini
*worked directly with composer
*New type of Italian Opera
Paul Verlaine
*French Poet
*Emotion is masked by many layers
Vasili Kadinsky
Painted abstract work after listening to Schoenberg’s music
*Used nonrepresentational shapes in his work
John Field
*Pianist composer (Irish) who Chopin admired. Used RH melody and broken Chords in thee LH
Later 19th century works by French composers with more complexity and artistry
Explicit recurrence of a theme throughout movements in a multi-movement composition
Concert Overture
*Characteristic of Berlioz
*Shorter WOrks intended for concert purposes rather than preludes to longer works
Programmatic Symphony
“Musical Novel” multi-movement symphonic work
Hector Berlioz
*French Opera and symphone composer
*Symphonie fantastique
*uses idea fixee
Grand Opera
*New Type of opera circa 1830
*grandiose length, lavish use of chorus and ballet, spectacular scenic effects
musical poem that tells a story in stanzas
Mystic Chord
used by scriabin, basic for Prometheus
*put in alphabetical order, it is closely related to a whole tone scale
Poly Chord
Combination arosing by juxtaposition of familiar buy unrelated harmonies used by Stravensky in Rite of Spring
Silver Age
Arts and letters in Russia during the Reign of Tsar Nicholas II 1894-1917
*Period of changing tastes
George Sand
*Pen name of French writer Aurore Dudevant
*Had an affair w/ Chopin
*a founder of feminist outlook in literature
*observer of Chopins creative process
*Rossinis term for entrance aria
Giusepee Verdi
*Italian Opera composer following Rossini’s Lead
*Expanded Rossini’s basic forms and added more realistic dramatism, modernized it
*wrote “Otello”
*Operas were sympathetic to Italian resurgence movement
*characters often chose duty over happiness
Mikhail Glinka
First significant Russian-Born composer
*largely self-taught, operas and symphonic works
*Used Russian nationalism themes and folk songs
Modest Mussorgsky
Russian self-taught composer, part of Kuchka
*Developed nationalistic, realistic, non-western style
*Greatest work “boris Dodunou” an opera
* wanted to effectively display Russian speech in music
Gustav Mahler
*Jewish composer/conductor living in Vienna
*Specialized in song and symphony
*Conducted opera
Alma Mahler
*wife of Gustav Mahler, 20 years younger
*wrote songs for Piano and voice
*married Walter Gropius and Franz Werfel after Mahler died
Gilbert and Sullivan
Sullivan wrote operetta, collaborated with writer Gilbert
*First sucess was “trial by jury” collaborated for several years
Richard Strauss
*conductor at Royal Opera in Berlin, also music director of Berlin Philharmonic
*wrote short orchestral pieces “tone poems” also wrote songs
*Saw later success in opera with Salome
Hugo Von Hofmannsthal
*Viennese writer who collaborated with Strauss on several operas
Teatro alla Scala
“Theatre in Milan where Verdi’s first work, “oberto” was performed
Music Drama
*Wagner’s alternative term for the future of opera
Alexander Scriabin
*Russian Atonal composer, used Octatonic scale and mystic chord
*wrote “Promietheus”
*uses repetition unlike Schoenberg
Pierrot Lunaire
*Piece by Schoenberg that set his future direction
*21 narratives for a female voice using sprechgesang
*”moonstruck Pierrot”
Hugo Riemann
*A leading theorist of the 19th century
*Known for the falue on funtional harmony
* Chords funtion as tonic, subdominant or dominant
Felix Mendellsohn
*Director of Gewaindhaus Orchestra *wrote several symphonies that avoided the gradudiose traits of Berlioz *wrote primarily piano character pieces *also an avid conductor *Piano trio in D minor *stylistically conservative
Robert Schumann
*composer and music critic
*founded the Zeitschrift fur music
*wrote heavily in pinao music and songs
*wrote 4 symphonies
*”symphony no. 1 in Bb major “spring”
*collection of over 20 small pieces by schumann, each bearing the title of an imaginary character or even at a masked ball during carnival season
*German concert hall in Leipzeig
*Gewand, German for cloth
*18th century German Opera where simple musical numbers were inserted into a lighthearted or folkish spoken play
*voices speak in a alternation with or accompanied by orchestra
*favored by French composers
Realism (Russian)
*more evocative of real life
*mid_late 19th century
*”they did not expect him” painting
Sergei Diaghilev

*Russian Impressario *founded art journal called Mir irkusstua (world of art)

*Founded Ballet Russes

Ballet Russes
*Ballet company founded by Diaghilev
*staged short ballets, several needed for an evening
*premiered Rite of Spring
Vaslav Nijinsky
*Dancer turned choreographer for Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring
*Stravinsky Ballet, rhythm is main component
*very controversial at release
*looks to ancient russian pagan rites
Arnold Schoenberg
*Atonal style, emancipation of dissonance
*also a painter
Emancipation of Dissonance
*Schoenberg approach to music
*Dissonant chords could be used and enjoyed just as freely as harmonic ones
Atonal Music
*No key signature or harmonic progression
*Basis for scale is chromatic
*Each note is of equal importance
* Tone-color melody
*succession of differing timbres could take on a structural role in composition akin to melody
Melodrama (Schoenberg)
*genre of Schoenberg’s Pierrot Lunaire
*combines spoken recitation w/ instrumental music
*Schoenbergs style of singing “speech song”
*Used in Pierrot Lunaire
Octatonic Scale
*Sets Structure for atonal feel
*Sometimes called Rimsky-korsakov
Igor Stravinsky
*Realized Fokine’s idea of integrated Ballet
*Russian, relied heavily on rhythm in Rite of Spring
*Looked back for inspiration
Hugo Riemann
*German music theorist who sided with Brahms in the Brahms-Wagner debate
*Saw Wagners style as leading to decadence
*Wilde play Strauss opera
*Heavy and controversial, based on the beheading of John the Baptist
Oscar Wilde
*Wrote the Play Salome, which inspired Strauss’ Opera
Tone Poem
*Strauss’ term for short one-movement orchestral work
Lili Boulanger
*First female composer to win the coveted Prix de Rome
*wrote primarily choral works but also songs and a few piano pieces
Gabriel Faure
*Wrote in all musical genres but his songs, piano, and chamber music are best known
*Romantic musical personality, contemporary of Debussy
Claude Debussy
*Most talented musician of Belle epogue
*Leader of impressionism in music
*Harmonic function is not toward the tonic, whole-tone scale
Claude Monet
*French Painter whose work coined the phrase impressionism
*color for the sake of color
*color and sound for the sake of itself, not for its function
Belle epogue
*Beautiful era
*Turn of the century in France
English Hymnal
*New collection of Hymns, edited by Vaughn Williams
*Anglican Church
Giacomo Puccini
*closely associated with Milan and it’s Teatro alla Scala
*composed only operas on a large-scale
*”Madame Butterfly
Ralph Vaughn Williams
*Continued some traits of Elgari Romanticism, but with more of an English character.
*Used a large amount of English folk songs
*edited English Hymnal
Enigma Variations
*Elgar’s work
*No one knows origins
*similar to B-A-C-H
Edward Elgar
*Late Romantic English composer
*Self-taught, German-influenced
*Enigma Variations
Choir Festivals
*Summer festivals that featured choral singing, especially important in England
*Sullivan spent much time conducting and composing here
Light opera well-established in Paris and Vienna by late 19th century
Story is Presented through music, mime, and dancing, was most in Paris in the 19th century. choreographer was leading figure of production
Peter Ilyich Tchailcovsky
*Russia’s greatest 19th century composer
*wrote a number of pieces in all genres
*Swan Lake, The sleeping Beauty, the Nutcracker
*distanced from Kuchka, lived in Moscow, Studied and taught at Conservatories
Songs and Dances of Death
*song cycle by Mussorgsky
*”handful” group of five Russian influential musicians
*influenced by Balakirev
*none had any musical education
Mily Balakirev
*Russian composer piano who was the center of a group of influential Russian composers opposed to the pro-wester school of thought
*opposed to conservatories, self-taught
movement in Catholic Church that suggested return to pure style of religious works like Palestrina
*wanted serene and uniform mood in which chorus sang unaccompanied in siplified rhythms
Johannes Brahms
*Composed to be a conservative romantic *German, wrote chamber music, orchestras, 4 symphonies, piano music, destroyed all incomplete works *tonal plans stray from classical forms
Transformation of Themes
*Characteristic of Liszt’s symphonic poems
*melodic prototype changes character at each reappearance
*created by Liszt
*solo concert with one performer, sometimes with only a few other accompanists
Symphonic Poem
*one movement Programmatic piece, started by Liszt
*close with Poetry
*Liszt emotional effect on audiences
Franz Liszt
*Piano virtuoso/composer
*Invented the recital, often used gypsy scale
*considered Hungarians to be his people
*Vittorio Emanuele Re d’Italia
*Risorgimento Statement
*Italian resurgence movement toward Itailian political and social unification
*Supported by Verdi
*In opera balances finale, both are reltively long and multi sectional *made from successsion of passages mixing choral and solo singing
Theatre manager
Simple Recitative
*In Early operas, this connects two numbers
*simplepiece, w/ Keyboard & sometimes cello or bass
Gioachino Rossini
*Composer of Italian Opera
*Barber of Seville
*Brought Various Strands of Italian Opera into classical form that was maintained for nearly 100 years after
*Had 40 year retirement & compsed light-hearted songs at the end of his life.
*ring cycle castle of the high God Wotan and his wife Fricka
*Built by Giants
Der Ring des Nibelungen
*Ring Cycle by Wagner
*Four related Operas drawn from ancient German Mythology
*Leading or associative motive
*theme used for person or thing
*developed and used heavily by Wagner
*Bavarian village where Wagnerpurchased property to stage his work
*took residence there as well
Music of the Future
*wagnerian idea that integrating dramatic artwork and music would be the future of opera
*Wagner’s term “total work of art”
*integrat text, music and staging into opera
Richard Wagner
*German Opera Composer (19th century)
*Ring Cycle, Tristan Chord
*extremely influential
Neve Zeitschrift Fur Music
Music Journal founded by Schumann “new Journal for music
Clara Schumann
*Married to Robert Schumann
*Piano Virtuoso
*43 year long Platonic friendship w/ Brahms
*Mostly wrote piano music & songs
Fanny Mendelssohn
*Sister of Felix
German word for songs
Song Cycles
group of songs that belong together in poetry or music
Character Pieces
Brief composition that quickly establish a mood or atmosphere
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
*”father” of Romanticism
*writer of Faust
*Focus on nature and feeling
*German Poet
Through Composed
not following any type of repetitive or symmetrical music plan
*ballad by Schubert based off of Goethe Poem
*Child and father chased by death, child dies
Musical Parties thrown by Schubert where he would try his new works, often followed by dining, dancing and socializing
Prix de Rome
*Frances most coveted music award for young composers
*four years living stipend and two year stay Villa Mediz; in Rome
Symphonie Fantastique
*By Berlioz
* Programmatic symphony about a young musician who obsesses over a girl, is marched to a scaffold, beheaded and tormented by witches in Hell
Idee Fixe
*REcurring melody that changes with setting,
*Used in symphonie Fantastique
*Translates as “obsession”
Song Collection
*Group of songs not bound by a musical or poetic similarity.
*Les Nuitsd’ete by Berlioz (all published together
Frederic Chopin
*Polish composer
*all of his works involve piano
*pioneered nocturnes
*wrote numerous etudes
*focused heavily on Mazurkas
*polish dance in triple time with accents on beats 2 & 3
Study piece derived from teaching that was musicality
Double escapement
Piano innovation where the hammer first falls to an intermediary position. Allows for the rapid succession striking. Invented by Erard
Functional Harmony
discusses harmonic functions of chords in music
Bach Revival
*Sparked by Medelssohn
*Return to music of old
*All of Bach’s music performed, published and studied
*Musical style of the 20’s-40’s associated with Igor Stavinsky.
*Going back to the Baroque and classical period.
*Parody like at times
*Popular entertainment including songs, skits, and dancing
*Ballet by Satie of which he collaborated with Pablo Picasso and writer Jean Cocteau.
*included popular musical styles, and a new spirit of the arts
Maurice Ravel
* French Composer
* Wrote opera, ballet, orchestral tone poems and piano character pieces, songs, chamber music and concertos
*Focused on orchestral after the war.
Erik Satie
*Started as Cabaret pianist and worked at Chat Nior
*wrote comical works similar to Cabaret music
Darius Milhaud
Part of “French Six”
*Wrote ballets and operas, chamber works, and piano pieces
*Lived in America after 1940
*Used Brazilian dance rhythms and polytonality
Les Six
*Darius Milhaud, Georges Auric, Francis Poulenc, Germaine Tailleferre, Louis Durey, and Arthur Honegger.
*Prominent French Composers
Jean Cocteau
*Influential French Writer
*anti romantic ideals
*Used in Milhauds work Longing for Brazil
*simultaneous presentation of two or more keys.
Piet Mondrian
*Dutch Artist who extended French Impressionism
Anton Webern
*Schoenberg’s student
*Vienesse composer better known as a conductor during his lifetime
*Pointillism creating sudden images or moments without any real connection
*In twelve-tone composition
*a contiguous statement of the twelve notes with none repeated except in an immediate or repetitive context
*A collection of 6 pitches
Complementary hexachords
Two collections of notes, each having six tones, which together contain all tones of chromatic scale
Backward in motion, as in twelve-tone music where a tone row is deployed with its tones in reverse order
Inversion (Modern)
A tone row in a twelve-tone composition is inverted if each interval reparating the notes is replaced by the octave complement-sometimes said to be a “symmetric” inversion
Retrograde Inversion
A compositional method in which the choice and ordering of elements is governed by precompositional arrangement or system
An artistic style of the late nineteenth century in which dots of color merge into recognizable images in the eye of the viewer.
*Similar in music
Alban Berg
*Viennese composer
*Student of Arnold Schoenberg
*Wrote Wozzeck
Kurt Weill
*Giant leap away from Wagnerian opera
*Wrote Three Penny Opera
*Music for use
*a movement in literature of the late nineteenth century that depicts society in an objective an truthful manner
Movement in the 20th century literature and art in which symbolic means are used to explore irrational states of mind and grotesque actions
Georg Buchner
*Play writer in Germany
*Died at age 23
*wrote Woyzeck, Danton’s Death and Leonce and Lena
Play by Georg Buchner and Opera by Berg. Berg used material directly from the spoken play. About crazed murderer.
(Music For use)
*A term used in the 20’s by Paul Hindemith to designate his compositions for amateurs or for everyday settings; also used by Kurt Weill for music of artistic value that was accessible to a general audience
Bertolt Brecht
Berlin Poet and Playwright.
The Beggar’s Opera
Set among London’s thieves and beggars, who act out a devastating satire on the culture and politics of the time.
The Threepenny Opera
Brecht’s reinvention of the Beggar’s Opera.
*Separates Popular music from Classical
Epic Theatre
A theatric style, associated with the plays of Bertolt Brecht, that despels normal theatric illusion and alienates the audience from the narrative
Bela Bartok
Romanian composer who focused on Hungarian folk songs.
Composed in all genres of his day. Very patriotic
Zoltan Kodaly
Bartok’s friend.
term used by Bela Bartok to describe the flexible rhythm of most ancient Hungarian peasant songs
Golden Section
the division of a line into two parts such that the ratio of lengths of the smaller to the larger division equals the larger to the whole
5 tone scale
Kod·ly Method
term used by Bela Bartok to describe the flexible rhythm of most ancient Hungarian peasant songs
Scott Joplin
Wrote Maple Leaf Rag
Played mostly rags but also played classical
James P. Johnson
*Played Stride piano
*Walking base line
*Very Syncopated Rhythms
Bessie Smith
*Classic Blues Singer
*Most famous blues singer of her time
*Wrote “lost your head blues”
Joe “King” Oliver
*Played New Orleans Style jazz
*was a leading cornetist who moved away from New Orleans
Louis Armstrong
*Started playing cornet
*Great Trumpet player
*Joe Oliver was his mentor
*founded “hot five”
a collective term for various types of 20th cen. popular music originating among African-American musicians and often involving improvisation
style of american popular musicespecially found in piano character pieces called rags in which a syncopated melody is joined to a rhythmically -regular accompanist
a style of ragtime piano playing and composing in which the pianists left hand moves regularly from chord tones in a low register to harmonies in the middle register
originally an improvised strophic folk song containing a succession of 3 line stanzas each sung to a 12 measure phrase and using a standard recurrent harmonic progression; the blues is also applicable to instrumental jazz
a style of African american song alternating phrases between 2 individuals or between an individual leader and a group
Paul Hindemith
*First a violinist
*wrote concertos,symphonies,pieces for chamber orchestra and band,six string quartets,piano music and sonatas.
*Also wrote opera’s
The Craft of Musical Composition
*Hindemith’s explanation of the twelve tone scale
*rooted in music traditions
Matthias Grunewald
Renaissance German painter
*painted altarpiece
Mathis der Maler
*Opera written by Hindemith
*depicted paintings by Grunewald
Sergei Prokofiev
*Russian composer emigrated to the u.s. and lived in u.s. germany and france while touring.
*Came back to Russia
*Wrote opera’s and ballets
Dmitri Shostakovich
*Never left Russia
*wrote 15 symphonies and string quartets
*also wrote sonatas, concertos, songs, choral music and thirty film scores.
socialist realism
an officially-approved doctrine guiding the arts in Soviet Russia that promoted a style geared to the understanding of the masses
*emphasis on strict formal principles or patterns in music
*Soviet term for music that seemed abstract or difficult, not in tune with Soviet ideology
Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk district

*strange play about wife murdering husband and lover where upon she commits suicide *Rape/sex scenes controversial

* By Dmitri Shostakovich

William Billings
*America’s first important composer
*wrote fuguing tunes and “anthems”
fuguing tunes
a hymn, often composed by American musicians of the eighteenth century, having fugal passages
Edward MacDowell
*typifies adopted talent
*Aspired to elevate american music culture to the status of European musical culture
Charles Ives
*Composer from Connecticut
*Son of a musician,
*Studied composition with Horatio Parker at Yale
*Little was published during his early years
Horatio Parker
*German Trained composer and teacher who had little sympathy for Ive’s experiments
Ralph Waldo Emerson
*Self-Reliant writer who promoted individualism in America.
The Unanswered Question
*Tone Poem by Ives
*music portrays universe
*musical idea that never gets answered in the piece
Ruth Crawford seeger
*Ohio born composer
*Studied piano in Chicago
*Studied under Charles Seeger who she married
dissonant counterpoint
term coined by Charles Seeger to refer to counterpoint in which the traditional roles of consonance and dissonance are reversed
Conlon Nancarrow
*Composer born in Arkansas
*Composed Jazzy instrumentals
*used poly rhythms and wrote player piano pieces
the simultaneous appearance in a musical work of two or more thythmic patterns or principles of rhythmic organization
Aaron Copland
*Leading american composer
*Studied at French school of American Music
*Studied under Nadia Boulanger
*Appalacian spring, Billy the kid and Rodeo all ballet scores
Nadia Boulanger
*Older sister of Lili Boulanger
*teacher at the Parisian school for American students
Walt Whitman
*Poet that influenced copland’s work
*American themed poetry
Martha Graham
*dancer and choreographer who commissioned Coplands Appalachian Spring
Appalachian Spring

*Based on Walt Whitmans poetry *Based on American themes *In ballet and orchestra form


Samuel Barber
*American Composer
*Also studied under Boulanger
*Sympathized most with German Romantic Music
*wrote for orchestra,, symphonies, schorter character pieces, and concertos
Hermit Songs
*Songs by Barber
*religious based
*music sets the mood/describes the scene
Tin Pan Alley
Area in Madison Square park in New york where composers flocked to and it sounded like a jangle of tin pans
song pluggers
musicians who worked for publishers and demonstrated their new offerings to customers.
George Gershwin
*Classically trained
*wrote more than 350 songs
*Started out as song plugger
*rhapsody in Blue, An American in Paris, “the Man I love”
Broadway musical
a form of popular musical theater of the 20th century, normally with spoken dialogue alternating with songs dances, ensembles, and choruses; synonymous with musical comedy, musical play, and Broadway musical
Stephen Sondheim
*both Broadway composer and writer
*created lyrics for west side story which was based off of Romeo and Juliet
Leonard Bernstein
*Wrote the music for West side story
*composer, pianist, and conductor.
*was the music director at NY philharmonic and Vienne Philharmonic
West Side Story
*Leonard Bernstein
*based off of Romeo and Juliet
*Broadway musical
*About gangs in NYC
Agnes De Mille
Choreographer of Oklahoma
Wilfred Owen
poet who wrote about war used in Britten’s requiem
Warsaw Autumn
modern music festival
*young polish composers who boldly separated themselves from an old-fashioned socialist realism
a song of lamentation
sound mass
a basic element in a modern composition made from a conglomerate of tones, lines, and rhythms
stochastic music
music involving chance and probability
graphic notation
in 20th century compositions, musical notation that includes unusual graphic designs
Benjamin Britten
*affected by world war II
*Studied composition and piano
*Wrote orchestral music
*wrote 17 operas
War Requiem
*Choral work written by Ben Britten
*rejection of warfare
Krzysztof Penderecki
*right after ww II
*experimental music
*Wrote operas,symphonies, and numerous concertos, two string quartets and two violin sonatas and a large amount of Latin sacred music for chorus.
*wrote Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima
Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima
*Experimental piece written by Krzysztof Penderecki
*Uses graphical notation
Ernst Krenek
*Viennese composer who experimented with Shoenberg’s method.
Milton Babbitt
*American composer
*Taught mathematics and music
*twelve tone ideas
refers to the capacity of two or more forms of a row to create aggregates when stacked vertically
total serialism
a compositional method in which the choice of most of the principal elements of a composition is governed precompositionally by an integrated system
George Balanchine
Russian-American choreographer who helped with Stravinsky’s Agon
Town that houses the International Summer Courses for New Music
Institute de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique (Institue for Musical Research and Collaboration)
Rene Char
Poet who’s poem was featured in Boulez’s Le marteau sans maitre
20th cen. literary and artistic movement that confound superficial reality or logic in order to evoke unconscious states of mind
Pierre Boulez
*wanted to wipe the slate clean of styles from the past
*composed freely
Stravinsky Ballet that was in his new 12 tone style.
chance music
20th century music in which compositional decisions are made by chance procedures
prepared piano
a piano whose sound is modified by the introduction of mutes and other objects between strings
indeterminacy of composition
term associated with the composer John Cage by which compositional decision are largely determined by chance routines
indeterminacy of performance
term associated with John Cage by which music results from spontaneous decisions made by players not strictly dictated by a composer
electronic music
works whose sounds are directly realized by a composer using electronic equipment
musique concrete
(concrete music) electronic music made from recordings of natural or man-made sounds
Pierre Schaeffer
*Musique concrete was his brainchild
*French Radio engineer
*Recorded sounds from around the world
tape music
a style of electronic music associated with Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening in which compositions are recorded and subsequently distorted
Le Corbusier
French architect who wanted to have a multimedia display at the Philips Pavilion at the Worlds Fair
Iannis Xenakis
Designed the pavilion used at the world fair in Brussels
*Also a composer
Olivier Messiaen
*Used Bird Song
*French Composer
*Also a famous organ composer
*Tried to write down birdsong in notation
bird song
song by a bird….used in Messiaen’s music
John Cage
*Composed in a “music by chance” mentality
*Wrote Prepared piano pieces
Edgard Varese
*Wrote Poeme electronique (first important electronic piece)
*Parisian composer
*Help Found the International Composers Guild
*Wrote electronic music , orchestral and he wrote in a tonal style a lot
Harlem Renaissance
A group of writers (Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, and W.E.D. Du Bois) started this and it was focused on the black creative experience in America.
style of ragtime piano playing and composing in which the left hand moves regularly from chord tones in a low register to harmonies in them middle register
big bands
the dominant medium of jazz during 30’s and 40’s
*rhythm section (piano,bass, guitar and drums) and choirs of saxophones clarinets trumpets and trombones
in jazz, a rhythm that drives forward in a triplet pattern often involving big bands in 30’s and 40’s.
Fletcher Henderson
*developer of big band and swing
*worked as song plugger and bang leader in NY
*Layed ground work for Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
*Self taught jazz pianist who also learned stride piano
*Played jungle style
*dominant in big band style and toured
jungle style
*big band style, associated with Duke Ellington in the 20’s, 30’s evoking African or primitive musical effects
Billy Strayhorn
*Duke Ellington’s assistant
*Arranger of jazz
*Composer of jazz
jazz standards
in jazz, popular song that is frequently arranged or used as the basis for improvisation
Benny Goodman
*1930’S most successful big band leader
*Played clarinet
*played on radio broadcasts
*favored swing
section player in jazz
jam sessions
in jazz, an informal making of music by improvisation
a style of jazz originating in the 40’s for small improvising ensembles, often in fast tempos
jazz combo
small jazz ensemble
the playing of accompanimental chords by a pianist or other instrumentalist in jazz
head arrangement
a jazz arrangement rehearsed and memorized by musicians, but not written down
cool jazz
a style of jazz of the 50’s characterized by subdued playing and moderate tempos
free jazz
a type of jazz of the 50’s and 60’s characterized by the removal or reinterpretation of key, normal harmonic progressions, and familiar jazz forms
third stream
a term coined by the composer Gunther Schuller to describe a musical style merging jazz and classical elements
a style of popular music that mixes elements of jazz and rock
musical style following WW II which departs from traditional norms in the name of progress
extended techniques
playing and singing in unusual ways in order to expand the sounds available in a musical work
bolero rhythm
spanish dance in triple meter used in Crump’s De donde vienes
metric modulation
term associated with Elliott Carter designating a proportional change of tempo by which a small division of a beat is regrouped into a new beat so that a new tempo results
minimum musical style of the 60’s built upon repetition and gradual change
term associated with composer Steve Reich; a phase piece is one that begins with 2 sources of sound giving fourth an identical ostinato; 1 sound source gradually pulls ahead, creating a constantly-changing rhythmic interaction with the other source
conceptual art
a loosely defined movement in art of the 60’s and 70’s in which the artist calls attention to ideas by which the art work is created rather than to traditional artistic objects
a term associated with Gyorgy Ligeti designating a texture in which a large number of lines merge into a sound mass
in electronic music, a device allowing shifts in amplitude in an electronic signal.
*in the music of John Adams a point of modulation from one collections of tones to another
tintinnabuli style
(bells style) a term coined by the composer Arvo Part for a polyphony in which a melodic line is joined to a “bells” line limited to three tones of the tonic triad
Luciano Berio
*devoted to modernism
*Thought that Serialism was sterile and lifeless
*born in Italy
*wrote “circles” for soprano, harp, and percussionists
George Crumb
*American Composer who also wrote in modernistic style
*”ancient voices of children” is on of his most celebrated works
Elliott Carter
*american composer with independent ideals
*modernistic stle
*Used metric modulation in his music
Steve Reich
*60’s composer
*Similar to conceptual art
Gyorgy Ligeti
*Romanian composer
*wrote two famous orchestral works entitled “Apparitions” and “Atmostpheres”
*Practiced micropolyphony
John Adams
*Composed in a new form of minimalism
*Composed short orchestral character pieces
*used “gates” in music
Joan Tower
*Revived the recent past
*wrote Fanfare for the uncommon woman alluding to Aaron Copland
*instrumental music, including character pieces, concertos, and chamber compositions
Arvo Part
*based his style off of Renaisance choral music.
*Born in Estonia
*moved from serialism-modernism-searching in the past
*uses tintinnabuli (bells) style