Baroque (Ch 29)
term used generally to describe the art, architecture, and music of the period 1600-1750 (grand design music)
Age of Absolutism (Ch 29)
King enjoys absolute power by reason of divine right (trickles down to others authorities)
Artusi-Monteverdi controversy (Ch 29)
war of words over what was more important, music (prima pratica, Artusi) or text(seconda pratica, Monteverdi)
Doctrine of Affections (Ch 29)
Held that different musical moods could and should be used to influence the emotions, or affections, of the listeners.
Monody(Ch 29)
solo madrigals, solo arias, and solo recitatives
Basso continueo(Ch 29)
bass line that provided a never-ending foundation, or “continuous bass”
Often played on 2 instruments
Theorbo(Ch 29)
large lute-like instrument with a full octave of additional bass strings in diatonic patterns
Figured Bass(Ch 29)
Numerical shorthand placed with the bass line that tells the player which unwritten notes to fill in above the written bass note.
Opera (ch 30)
literally means “work.” But in music it means a dramatic work, or play, set to music
Libretto (Ch 30)
Text that conveys the story of the opera written in poetic verse
Florentine camerata (club/circle) (Ch 30)
Group of prominent Florentines that gathered in the home of Count Giovanni Bardi to discuss literature, science, and the arts of the day
Stile rappresentativo (Ch 30)
dramatic style or theatre style that was vocal expression somewhere between song and declaimed speech
Orpheus legend (Ch 30)
tale of Orpheus the son of Apollo, the greek god of the sun and of music.
Le nuove musiche (Ch 30)
Written by Giulio Caccini, collection of solo madrigals and strophic solo songs gathered over time
Toccata (Ch 30)
“touched thing” or an instrumental piece, for keyboard or other intruments, requiring the performer to touch the instrument with great technical dexterity
Recitative (Ch 30)
musically heightened speech in opera that tells what has happened
Simple recitative (Ch 30)
voice accompanied only by basso continuo
Arioso style (Ch 30)
singing halfway between recitative and a full-blown aria
Aria (Ch 30)
“song” or “ayre”–florid, more expansive, and more melodious than a recitative or arioso
Strophic variation aria (Ch 30)
an aria in which the same melodic and harmonic plan appears, with slight variation, in each successive strophe
basilica of St. Mark (Ch. 31)
focus of civic and spiritual life of Vinice
Cori spezzati (Ch. 31)
“broken choirs” music for two, three, or four choirs placed in different parts of a building
Stile concertata (Ch. 31)
Italian for “concerted style.” Term broadly used to identify Baroque music marked by grand scale and strong contrast
concerted motet (Ch. 31)
a motet in the concertato style with strong contrasts in textures and timbres involving voices and instruments
Concerted madrigal (Ch. 31)
a madrigal in the concertato style with strong contrasts in textures and timbres involving voices and instruments
Stile concitato (Ch. 31)
Monteverdi’s style, he simply took whole notes and divided them into machine gun-like short notes-sixteenth notes all firing on the same pitch
Cantata (Ch. 31)
the primary genre of vocal chamber music in the Baroque era; something sung.
basso ostinato (Ch. 31)
a bass line that insistently repeats, note for note
Ciaconna (Ch. 31)
used indiscriminately to indicate almost any repeating bass pattern of short duration
Lament bass (Ch. 31)
A descending tetrachordal basso ostinato employed during the Baroque era as a musical signifier of grief
Kapellmeister (Ch. 31)
chief of music at court, the German equivalent of maestro di capello
The Thirty Years’ War (Ch. 31)
was one of the greatest conflicts in the history of early-modern Europe. Protestant and catholic conflict over control
Counter Reformation (Ch. 32)
The Churches aggressive response to the Protestant Reformation. (Painting over nudity, banning secular tunes)
Jesuits (Ch. 32)
Priests that established colleges to impart a sense of true Catholic life by means of education
cappella pontificia sistina (Ch. 32)
papal Sistine Chapel
Stile antico (Ch. 32)
old or traditional style
Tenebrae service (Ch. 32)
Latin for “darkness” because the service was sung in almost total darkness
falsobordone (Ch. 32)
at first improvisatory technique used by church singers (3 singers forming chords). But later became a piece for four or five voices but still simple
basilica (Ch. 32)
special, grand church that happens not to be a cathedral
Colossal Baroque (Ch. 32)
large-scale multiple choir music for voices and instruments
Reverberation time (Ch. 32)
the time it takes the sound to die out
alternatim technique (Ch. 32)
organ alternating with the choir on verses
Fiori musicali (Ch. 32)
Frescobaldi’s collection of Mass music to serve St. Peter’s and other churches (Musical Flowers)
Organ Mass (Ch. 32)
A mass in which an organ alternates with, or entirely replaces, the choir
Organ Verset (Ch. 32)
a short piece that replaces a liturgical item otherwise sung by the choir
Ricercar (17th Century) (Ch. 32)
Frescobaldi perfected a tightly ORGANized, monothematic ricercar that influenced the later fugal writing of J.S. Bach
Tonal Answer (Ch. 32)
a following voice that imitates the subject at the interval of a fifth above or fourth below and changes the subject so as to keep the music in the home tonality
Oratorio (Ch. 32)
Similar to Opera minus the lavish sets, costumes, and choreography
Oratory (Ch. 32)
prayer hall
confraternity (Ch. 32)
a fraternal order emphasizing religious devotion and charity
Chamber Cantata (Ch. 32)
performed in front of a select audience in a private residence
da capo aria (Ch. 32)
an aria in two sections with an obligatory return to and repeat of the first (ABA)
Ritornello (Ch. 32)
Refrain, distinctive musical phrase that comes at the beginning of the aria and returns frequently after
Chamber Cantata (Ch. 32)
performed for a select audience in a private residence
Cremona (Ch. 33)
city that was crucial to the development of the violin
Antonio Stradivari (Ch. 33)
Famous Violin Maker
da chiesa (Ch. 33)
of the church
da camera (Ch. 33)
of the chamber
sonata (Ch. 33)
is a piece for a single instrument or small instrumental ensemble
multiple stops (Ch. 33)
playing two or more notes simultaneously as chords
Solo Sonata (Ch. 33)
comprised a line for a single melody instrument and basso continuo
(Actually three instruments including basso continuo)
Trio Sonata (Ch. 33)
had two treble instruments and continuo
(4 instruments including basso continuo)
Binary Form (Ch. 33)
a structure consisting of two complementary parts, the first moving to a closely related key and the second beginning in that new key but soon returning the music to the tonic
Walking bass (Ch. 33)
a bass line, especially in jazz, with a predominantly stepwise motion and steady rhythm
Sinfonia (Ch. 33)
was used to designate a three-movement instrumental overture
Italian for “sharp,” requires the performers to play in a detached fashion but not quite as short as staccato
Clarino register (Ch. 33)
high register for Baroque trumpeters
Concerto (Ch. 33)
purely instrumental piece for ensemble in which one or more soloists both complemented and competed with an orchestra
Solo concerto (Ch. 33)
concerto composed for only solo instrument
Cadenza (Ch. 33)
a technically demanding, rhapsodic, improvisatory passage near the end of a movement
Concerto Grosso (Ch. 33)
a larger body of performers, namely the full orchestra, contrasts with a smaller group of soloists
Ripieno (Ch. 33)
Italian for “full,” larger group of performers
Concertino (Ch. 33)
“little concert” or smaller body of performers
ritornello form (Ch. 33)
a carefully worked out structure for a concerto grosso, which employs regular reappearances of ritornello
Johann Froberger (Ch. 34)
he established the dance suite as an important genre of music for string keyboard instruments
Dance Suite (Ch. 34)
an ordered set of dances for instrument or ensemble, all written in the same key (often on the sequence of allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue)
Allemande (Ch. 34)
(Germany) upbeat and gracefully interweaving lines that create an improvisatory-like style
Courante (Ch. 34)
lively dance characterized by intentional metrical ambiguity
Sarabande (Ch. 34)
a slow, stately dance in 3/4 strong accent on 2nd beat
Gigue (Ch. 34)
a fast dance, in 6/8 or 12/8 with a constant eighth-note pulse that produces a galloping sound
program music (Ch. 34)
some external influence or non-musical event affects the general spirit and the specific details of an instrumental composition
“Mystery” Sonatas or “Rosary” Sonatas (Ch. 34)
Sonatas by Biber for solo violin and coninuo that project through music the sacred devotion of the rosary.
Scordatura (Ch. 34)
tuning a string instrument to something other than standard tuning
Doctrine of Affections (Ch. 34)
embodies the Baroque belief that emotions are objective phenomena that can be represented by analogous tones and rhythms
Abendmusik (Ch. 34)
was an hour-long concert of sacred music with arias and recitatives–something akin toa sacred opera or oratorio (associated with Buxtehude)
Chorale fantasia (Ch. 34)
a lengthy composition for organ that takes a chorale tune as a point of departure but increasingly gives free rein to the composer’s imagination (Buxtehude was known for this)
Chorale prelude (Ch. 34)
is a work for organ that sets a Lutheran chorale tune, surrounding it with counterpoint and florid embellishment (Pachelbel is an example)
Absolutism (Ch. 35)
the ultimate power in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right
Versailles (Ch. 35)
stood as a monumental symbol of the French absolutist state
ballet de cour (Ch. 35)
type of ballet danced at the French royal court from the late sixteenth to the late seventeenth century in which members of the court appeared alongside professional dances
air de cour (Ch. 35)
a simple strophic song for single voice or a small group of soloists
Vingt-quatre violons du roi (Ch. 35)
twenty-four instruments of violin family (6 violins, 12 violas, 6 basse de violons)
Academie royale de musique (Ch. 35)
an opera company directly licensed and indirectly financed by the king
tragedie lyrique (Ch. 35)
the term used to designate French opera in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which was a fusion of classical French tragedy with traditional French ballet (Lully developed this)
divertissement (Ch. 35)
a lavishly choreographed diversionary interlude with occasional singing
French overture (Ch. 35)
a distinctive type of instrumental prelude created by Lully that was an opening to the larger show (typically opera)
recitatif ordinaire (Ch. 35)
a style of recitative, develooped by French composer Jean Baptiste Lully, noteworth for its length, vocal range, and generally dramatic quality
cantate francaise (Ch 35)
virtually identical to the late 17th century Italian chamber cantata except that it set a French rather than Italian text
tombeau (Ch 36)
French for “tomb,” is an instrumental piece commemorating someone’s death
Style brise (Ch 36)
“broken style” is a modern term for a type of discontinuous texture in which chords are broken apart and the notes enter one by one. Voices seem to dart in and out
unmeasured prelude (Ch 36)
an opening piece without indication for rhythmic duration or metrical organization
clavecin (Ch 36)
French for harpsichord
The art of Playing the Harpsichord (Ch 36)
is a pedagogical manual in which Couperin leads the clavecin student through a discussion of fingering, ornamentation, and other aspects of performance
agrements (Ch 36)
French for ornaments
notes inegales (Ch 36)
a succession of equal notes moving rapidly up or down the scale are played somewhat unequally, such as “long-short, long-short.”
Overdotting (Ch 36)
a dotted note is made longer than written, while its complementary short note is made shorter
Rococo (Ch 36)
a term used to describe the decorative arts and the music of mid eighteenth-century France, with all their lightness,grace, and highly ornate surfaces
orde (Ch 36)
is a group of pieces loosely associated by feeling and key
rondeau (Ch 36)
a composition based on the alternation of a main theme (refrain) with subsidary sections called couplets
couplets (Ch 36)
a term used in the rondo form of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to indicate an intermediate section (episode) distinctly different from the refrain
Westminster Abbey (ch. 37)
Parlimental building that provided ceremonies of state, all with appropriate musical pomp
masque (ch. 37)
an elaborate courtly entertainment using music, dance, and drama to portray an allegorical story that shed a favorable light on the royal family
ground bass (ch. 37)
the English term for basso ostinato
Dido and Aeneas (ch. 37)
story found on page 324 of book
ode (ch. 37)
a multi-movement hymn of praise to a person or ideal usually lasting about twenty minutes and containing an instrumental introduction, choruses, duets, and solo arias, but no recitative because there is no story
dance suite (ch 38)
collection of dances all in a single key for one instrument or another (Binary form)
Royal Academy of Music (ch 38)
Handel’s formation of a publicly-held stock company for the production of Italian opera. The principal investor was the king
opera seria (ch 38)
(Literally, serious opera, as opposed to comic opera) was fully sung Italian opera of the most elaborate and expensive sort (dominated the courts in Europe in the 18th century)
Senesino (ch 38)
Famous Castrati, full name was Francesco Bernardi. Came from Siena
English oratorio (ch 38)
like opera, was born in seventheenth-century Italy. Oratorio was not part of the regular worship services of the church, but provided extra-liturgical enlightenment and, especially, enjoyment for the faithful
pastoral aria (ch 38)
a slow aria with several distinctive charactiristics: parallel thirds that glide mainly in step-wise motion, a lilting rhythm in compound meter, and a harmony that changes slowly and employs many subdominant chords
Water Music (Ch. 38)
Music Handel wrote for the boating trips of royalty (king George)
Messiah (Ch. 38)
Draws on passages of the old and New Testament concerting the idea of a messiah. Handel’s most popular oratorio. He composed it in 3 1/2 weeks.
BWV (Ch 39)
Bach Werke Verzeichnis or Bach Work List
letters put on Bach’s works
Orgelbuchlein (Ch 39)
a collection of forty-six pieces written mostly between 1708 and 1713. Means Little organ book because the manuscript measures only 6×7 inches (chorale preludes)
Chorale Prelude (Ch 39)
an ornamental setting of a pre-existing chorale tune intended to be played on the organ before singing of the chorale
by the full congregation. Bach usually placed the tune in the soprano and embellished it
Pedal Point (Ch 39)
any sustained or continually repeated pitch, usually placed in the bass and sounding while harmonies change around it.
Kapellmeister (Ch 39)
term used in the Baroque and Classical periods to refer to the chief musician, not just of the chapel, but of the entire court (Bach got promoted to this position at Cothen)
WTC (Ch 39)
Well-Tempered Clavier is a collection of preludes and fugues by Bach in two books
Equal Temperament (Ch 39)
a division of the octave into twelve equal half-steps such as we have on the keyboard today
Subject (Ch 39)
the main theme
exposition (Ch 39)
an opening section in which each voice presents the subject in turn
countersubject (Ch 39)
a unit of thematically distinctive material that serves as a counterpoint to the subject
episode (Ch 39)
In a fugue, a section full of modulation and free counterpoint that is based on motives derived from the subject
invertible counterpoint (Ch 39)
a counterpoint carefully written so that the vertical position of two or more voices can be switched without violating the rules of counterpoint or creating undue dissonance
fugue (Ch 39)
a contrapuntal composition for two, three, four, or five voices, which begins with a presentation of a subject in imitation in each voice (exposition), continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint (episodes) and further appearances of the subject, and ends with a strong affirmation of the tonic key
obbligato (Ch 39)
an indication that a composer has written a specific part for an instrument and intends to be played as written
Brandenburg Concertos (Ch 39)
Bach composed while at Cothen, inspired to write the concertos when he visited Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg
cantor (Ch 40)
the practitioner who performs music, as distinguished from the musicus; in a medieval monastery or nunnery the person specially trained to lead the music of the community who sat with one of the two groups and led the singing
chorale cantata (Ch 40)
a genre of sacred vocal music that employs the text and tune of a pre-existing Lutheran chorale in all of several movements
accompanied recitative (Ch 40)
a recitative that features a full orchestral accompaniment; it appears occasionally in the sacred vocal music of Bach but was used more extensively in the operas of Gluck and later composers
passion (Ch 40)
a large-scale musical depiction of Christ’s crucifixion as recorded in the Gospels; and oratorio on the subject of the passion
Enlightenment (ch. 41)
a philosophical, scientific, and political movement that dominated eighteenth-century thought.
les philosophes (ch. 41)
a group of French free thinkers including Denis Diderot, Jean-Jaceques Rousseau, and Francois-Marie Arouet AKA Voltaire
Encyclopedia (ch. 41)
French encyclopedia that was the first of its kind. Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote music articles for the Encyclopedia
Denis Diderot (ch. 41)
Faustina Bordoni (ch. 41)
wife of Johann Hasse that sang soprano, she was the prima donna of the age
Johann Adolf Hasse (ch. 41)
composer of enlightenment opera, his first opera was Cleofide
prima donna (ch. 41)
leading lady
Pietro Metastasio (ch. 41)
principal librettist for eighteenth-century opera seria, wrote the text for Cleofide
coloratura (Ch. 41)
florid figuration assigned to the soprano voice in an opera; also the high female voice capable of singing such a florid part
comic opera (Ch. 41)
a simple,direct type of musical theater that made use of comic characters, dealt with everyday social issues, and emphasized values more in step with those of middle class
ballad (Ch. 41)
a narrative poem or its musical setting; a traditional, usually strophic, song that tells a lengthy story; in popular music, a love song in a slow tempo
ballad opera (Ch. 41)
a type of popular 18th cent. English musical theater using re-texted ballads (or other popular songs) and spoken dialogue rather than recitative
John Gay (Ch. 41)
wrote the beggars opera which focused on lower class life and was generally more light than serious opera
opera buffa (ch 41)
Italian version of comic opera; literally “buffoonish opera.”
intermezzo (ch 41)
musical diversion between acts of an opera or play
Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (ch 41)
he had a short life (tuberculosis) and he composed opera. He had more compositions attributed to him than he actually wrote
La Guerre des Bouffons (ch 41)
“The War of the Buffoons” drawn from the word clownish in opera buffa. French war of words on which style of opera to use.
opera comique (ch 41)
French opera similar to its Italian cousin opera buffa, has characters from the everyday world. Natural as emphasis
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (ch 41)
leading Enlightenment philosopher advocated that all government should be based on the consent of the governed rather than the divine right of kings
reform opera (ch 41)
sought to combine the best features of the Italian and French traditions, to yoke Italian lyricism to the French concern for intense dramatic expression
Christoph Willibald Gluck (ch 41)
famous composer of reform opera
Concert spirituel (ch 42)
one of the first and foremost public concert series founded in Paris in 1725; originally formed to give a public hearing to religious music sun in Latin, its repertory soon came to emphasize instrumental symphonies and concertos as well.
concert symphony (ch 42)
a three or four movement instrumental work projecting the unified sounds of an orchestra created during the Enlightenment period
Giovanni Battista Sammartini (ch 42)
the leader of the creation of the concert symphony. Was actually French.
Mannheim crescendo (ch 42)
a gradual increase from very soft to very loud with a repeating figure over a pedal point
Johann Stamitz (ch 42)
worked at the court at Mannheim was a composer and conductor. Born Czech.
Alberti bass (ch 43)
animates simple triads by playing the notes successively in a pattern
Domenico Scarlatti (ch 43)
harpsichord prodigy born in Naples. Composed mainly for the keyboard. Didn’t publish any music until he was 53 years old.Essercizi was is first work published. “acciaccatura”
pianoforte (ch 43)
original name for the piano because, unlike the harpsichord, its mechanism allowed the player to control the force of a blow to the string and thus could play piano or forte
acciaccatura (ch 43)
a technique of crunching dissonant chords used by Domenico Scarlatti
Frederick the Great (ch 43)
made his realm, the north German kingdom of Prussia, a major player in European affairs. He transformed Berlin into a cosmopolitan capital of 100k people full of art a learning
Essay on the True Art of Playing the Keyboard (ch 43)
C.P.E. Bach’s essay for keyboard instruction.
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (ch 43)
wrote in all musical genres of the day except Opera and Catholic mass. Wrote an essay for keyboard instruction. favorite instrument was the Clavier.
empfindsamer Stil (ch 43)
German for sensitive style; term applied to the hyper-expressivity that affected northern European arts generally in the second half of the 18th century
Bebung (ch 43)
“quaking” on a Clavichord. Which is the ability to use vibrato on the keyboard
Johann Christian Bach (ch 43)
focused on piano (lived in London)and was Bach’s youngest son. Music was in the galant style
fantasia (ch 43)
a rhapsodic, improvisatory work, often unbarred, in which the composer gives free rein to the musical imagination without concern for conventional musical forms.
Viennese School (ch 43)
Composers consisting of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Franz Schubert
sonata form (ch. 44)
the most important formal innovation of the Classical period; consists of an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda
exposition (ch. 44)
in sonata form the first main section in which the primary thematic material of the movement is presented or exposed
development (ch. 44)
in sonata form, the middlemost section in which the themes of the exposition are varied or developed in some fashion.
recapitulation (ch. 44)
in sonata form, the return of the first theme and the tonic key following the development; although essentially a revisiting of previous material it is usually by no means an exact repeat
transition (ch. 44)
in sonata form the passage of modulation between the tonic and the new key
retransition (ch. 44)
in sonata form, the point near the end of the development where tonal stability returns, often in the form of a dominant pedal point
coda (ch. 44)
the musical section appended to a piece to add extra weight to the end to give it a feeling of conclusion
rondo form (ch. 44)
one of the main forms of the Classical period; a Classical rondo sets a refrain (A) against contrasting material (B,C, or D) to create a pattern such as ABACA
Esterhazy family (Ch. 45)
richest and most influential among the German-speaking aristocrats of Hungary, with estates covering some ten million acres south east of Vienna. Haydn’s employer was Nikolaus Esterhazy
Baryton (Ch. 45)
a viola da gamba-like instrument with six strings. Nikolaus Esterhazy played this instrument.
Hoboken number (Ch. 45)
number used to identify one of Haydn’s works. Ex. “Hob.1:104”
minuet and trio (Ch. 45)
a pair of movements with each usually constructed in rounded binary form; the trio was often scored for fewer instruments, some times only three (thus the name); often served as the third movement of a symphony or piece of chamber music
concertante (Ch. 45)
a special orchestral style; a concerto-like approach to the use of the orchestra in which individual instruments regularly emerge from the orchestral texture to function as soloists.
“Farewell” Symphony (Ch. 45)
Best known programmatic work by Haydn. Got its name from when Nikolaus stayed at Esterhaza too long and the musicians wanted to go home.
Sturm und Drang (Ch. 45)
German for Storm and Stress. As a musical term it refers to a small but significant group of works written around 1770 that are marked by agitated, impassioned writing, such as Mozart’s Symphony No. 25 (K. 183) of 1773
scherzo (Ch. 45)
(Italian for joke) an exuberant triple-meter dance that frequently replaced the more stately minute as the third movement in symphonies and chamber works of the Classical period; was favored first by Haydn (in his Opus 33 quartets) and then especially by Beethoven in his symphonies.
Op. 33 Quartets (Ch. 46)
London Symphonies (Ch. 46)
Haydn’s compositions for Salomon for London.
“Surprise” Symphony (Ch. 46)
very well received symphony
The Creation (Ch. 46)
oratorio that Haydn wrote while in London