What were some facts about the Romantic Period?
Occurred from 1815-1910, industrialism and nationalism emerging, pianos in every home, women doing more with music, music had attractive tunes and melodies, Romantic meant “far off or something you could imagine”
Who was the French painter that was known his nationalistic themed paintings?
What did romanticism promote?
Individual thoughts and extremes of emotion, the combination of arts and music, and the importance of programmatic music
What is a German art songs called?
Lied or Lieder
What are verses called when music repeats but changes on the repeat?
Strophic lieds
What is through composed music that changed throughout and based on poems called?
What is a string of songs placed together called?
Song cycle
What composer was born in Vienna, had syphilis, could hear music in his head like Mozart, wrote Erlkonig at 17, wrote over 600 lieder, and composed Gretchen am Spinnrade?
Franz Schubert
What was the US version of Lieder called?
Parlor songs
What US composer what called the “Father of American Music”, composed “Oh Susanna” and Jennie with the Light Brown Hair, and signed with Christy’s Minstrels?
Stephen Foster
Who was the composer/early music critic and conductor that permanently cripped his hand, founded the New Journal of Music, had a mental illness, had a mental club called Davidsbund to which his three personalities (Florestan the extrovert, Eusebius the introvert, and Meiser Raro the mediator)
Robert Schumann
Who was the female pianist that married Robert Schumann at 18, had 6 kids, and was awarded position of professor at a German University?
Clara Wieck Schumann
What is programmatic music called that used descriptive titles (such as Carnival and Kinderzenen) that was written by Robert Schumann?
Piano character pieces
Who was the Polish composer that moved to France, but whose music still had a Polish-feel to it, was very thin and had a respiratory disease, had an affair with George Sand, composed about 200 piano pieces, 27 etudes, used rubato extensively, composed piano dances, like waltzes and mazurkas, and composed Mazurka in Bb Major, Op. 7, No. 1?
Frederyk Chopin
Who was the vain, most well known piano virtuoso of the period, convinced right side looked better than his left, gave 1000 concerts in 8 years, first pianist to give a solo piano concert, play piano pieces from memory, and to include a wide variety of piano music from different periods?
Franz Liszt
What were some innovations made to concerts in the Romantic period?
Concerts featured chamber music, had a variety of repitoire, larger orchestra, woodwinds got keys and new instruments, such as the saxophone and piccolo were brought into the scene, brass got valves, string instruments got metal strings, and increase in percussion instruments
What French born composer was self-taught in harmony and composition, came from a wealthy family, played a pin whistle, Wrote a tretise on orchesration , was nicknamed the Father of the Orchestra, asked instruments to play in different ways to produce different sounds, and composed one of the first examples of programmatic music entitled Symphonie Fantastique “Dream of a Witch’s Sabbath” movement 5?
Hector Berlioz
What actress was stalked by Berlioz and eventually married him/
Harriet Smithson
What was the name of the early tuba-like instrument?
What is the name of the fixed melody that is used to denote a person a.k.a. a theme?
Idee Fixe
What is a melody called that is usually associated with death?
Dies iree
What composer had a full recital at 9, had Bartholdy added to the end of his name, composed at 13, was educated in arts, science, and foreign languages, and composed Violin Concerto movement 3?
Felix Mendelssohn
Who was the soprano soloist from Sweden, nicknamed the “Swedish Nightingale”, and was a supposed lover of Felix Mendelssohn?
Jenny Lind
What well known violinist and friend of Felix’s had a violin concerto for him and was named concert master of the orchestra?
Ferdinand David
What oratorio written by Felix Mendelssohn was written in both English and German text?
What were some characteristics of Opera in the Romantic period?
Popular among both middle and upper class citizens, had prevalent nationalistic themes, and opera houses popped up to show status
What composer was a leap year baby, father was a horn player and mother was an opera singer, was known for his practical jokes, wrote first opera at 18, wrote Sins of my Old Age (written to explain his feelings), helped to establish bel canto, and composed Il Barbiere di Siviglia Act 1, No. 7 Una voce poco fa?
Gioachino Rossini
What is the first aria a singer sings called?
Una vocha aria
Who was the German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist who was an innovative thinker in orchestration, had a sister who was married to Mozart?
Carl Maria von Weber
Who was the Italian composer who composed at 20, wrote the opera Rigoletto that encompassed many different opera styles, wrote a requiem mass for Rossini’s death, wrote the operas Aida and La Traviata to explain his style, and composed La Traviata Act 3?
Giuseppe Verdi
What composer wrote the opera La Boheme (opera about 6 bohemians that struggled to survive and the poverty of the period), and was a fan of cigars/cigarettes?
Giacomo Puccini
Who was the composer that wrote Carmen, an opera set in Spain?
Georges Bizet
What became a popular addition to opera in Russia?
What was the name of the five composers (Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Rimsky-Korsakav, and Mussorgsky) that incorporated nationalism in their music?
The Russian Five
What German composer created the music drama genre, composed only opera, had an affair with Cosima Liszt, created a Gesamtskunstwerk, wrote his own librettos and called them music dramas, was a writer that had many anti-semantic themes, was one of the first composers to dim lights in opera house, and composed Tristan und Isolde Act 1, Scene 5?
Richard Wagner
Who was the king who built many fairy tail castles all over Bavaria with the most famous one being the Neuschwanstein Castle, helped Wagner build the Bayreuth Festspielhaus that has uncomfortable chairs and a special orchestra pit?
Crazy King Ludwig of Bavaria
What is the German word for the combination of poetry, singing and music into a total work called?
Who composed Gretchen am Spinnrade?
Franz Schubert
Who composed Jeannie withe the Light Brown Hair?
Stephen Foster
Who composed Mazurka in Bb Major, Op. 7, No. 1?
Frederyk Chopin
Who composed Symphonie Fantastique “Dream of a Witch Sabbath”, movement 5?
Hector Berlioz
Who composed Violin Concerto, Movement 3?
Felix Mendelssohn
Who composed Il Barbiere di Siviglia, Act 1, No.7, Una voca poco fa?
Gioachino Rossini
Who composed La Traviata, Act 3?
Giuseppe Verdi
Who composed Tristan und Isolde, Act 1, Scene 5?
Richard Wagner
Who composed Symphony no. 4, movement 4?
Johannes Brahms
Who composed The Stars and Stripes Forever?
John Philip Sousa
What is the German version of the primary motive, similar to the idee fixe that denotes a person, emotion, or thing?
What type of melody was Wagner famous for that created dramatic tension through chromaticism and harmony?
Endless melody
What are the notes for a Tristan Chord used in Tristan und Isolde?
F#, B, D#, and G#
What type of music was created by Brahms that said that music had it’s own identity ?
Pure or absolute music
What German composer composed at 11, ha his cello stolen by his teacher, played pianos at bars, became inflatuated with Clara Schumann, frequently visited a tavern called the “Red Hedgehog”, wrote 4 symphonies, and composed Symphony no. 4, movement 4?
Johannes Brahms
What is the name of the repeating bass line in Brahms’ 4th symphony called?
What German composer composed at 6, was forbidden to study/listen to Wagner, but still did, was famous for symphonic tone poems with his most well known being Also Sprach Zarathustra?
Richard Strauss
Who was the Austrian composer that was the lead conductor of the Vienna State Opera and wrote 9 symphonies?
Gustav Mahler
What ensemble became more popular and emerged from military instruments?
What American composer started violin at 6, had perfect pitch, joined Marine band at 13 as an apprentice, didn’t like using radio, but used it later in his years, was an officer in the US Navy and wore his Navy suit around in public, was a free mason, loved cheeses (Dutch cheese in particular), and composed The Stars and Stripes Forever?
John Philip Sousa