Da capo aria
Aria form in two sections. The first section is repeated after the second sections close, which carries the instruction da capo, creating an ABA form.
EXAMPLE: Scarlatti’s Cantata, Clori Vezzosa, E bella contains a da capo aria titled, Si, si ben mio.
Italian Cantata
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a vocal chamber work with continuo, usually for sol voice, consisting of several sections or movements that include recitatives and arias and setting a lyrical or quasi dramatic text. Scarlatti wrote over 600 of them.
a semidramatic piece for for for several singers and small orchestra for special occasions.
EXAMPLE: The first to write sonatas was Alessndro Stradella.
a poetic style of verse with themes of love, idealized portrayal of country life, shepherds, and nymphs.
an instrumental refrain between vocal stanza of aria or cantata.
EXAMPLE: Scarlatti, La Griselda
San Petronio
Bologna church that played as a center for instrumental ensemble music.

EXAMPLE: Maurizio Cazzati(music director)- combined stile antico(contrapuntal) with and new concerted styles ( solo singing and basso continuo)

Antonio Stradivari
A well known violin maker of Cremona who was involved witht he production of 1100 instruments.

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Example: Violin, Stradivarius.

Trio Sonata
Common instrumental genre during the Baroque period, a sonata for two treble instruments(violins) above a basso continuo. Aperformance feature four or more players if more than one was used for the continuo part.
Example: Archangel Corelli, Trio Sonata Op. 3, No.2(grave,allegro, adagio, allegro)
Sonata da camera
Baroque CHAMBER sonata, usually a suite of stylized dances, scored for one or more treble instruments and continuo.
Sonata da Chiesa
CHURCH SONATA, baroque instrumental work intended for performance in churh: usually in four movements(slow,fast,slow fast) and scored for one or more treble instruments and continuo.

Example: Archangel Corelli, Trio Sonata Op. 3, No.2(grave,allegro, adagio, allegro)

In the seventeenth century, ensemble of instruments or of voices with one or more instruments or a work for such an ensemble. Features: florid melody +firm bass+tonality +contrast.
Usually 3 movements. EXAMPLE: Antonio Vivaldi, Violin Concerto and orchestra in A minor, Op. 3, No. 6.
Collegium Musicum
association of German amateurs from the educated middle class(university students) who gathered to play and sing together for their own pleasure or to hear professionals in private performances.
Buxtehude’s sacred vocal music concert at his church, St. Mary’s before Christmas. It was free and attracted young musicians like 20 year old J. S. Bach.
Missa Salisburgensis
Heinrich Biber’s monumental polychoral music by with 16 singers and 37 instrumentalists done for the 110th anniversary of the Archbishopric of Salzburg.
strophic hymn in the Lutheran tradition intended to be sung by the congregation.
Ex. Nun Komm, der Heiden Heiland, Martin Luther.
sacred concerto
In the seventeeth century, it was a composition on sacred text for one or more singers and instrumental accompaniment.
keyboard piece or lute piece resembling aimprovisation that may include imitative sections or may serve as a prelude to an independent fugue.

EXAMPLE:(includes toccata parts)Dieterich Buxtehude, Praeladium in E major, BWV 141.

composition in imitative texture that is based on a single subject and begins with successive statements of the subject in voices.

Ex. Bach, Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543(year: 1715)

Chorale prelude
Relatively short setting for organ of a chorale melody, used as an introduction for congregational singing or as an interlude in a Lutheran church service
Ex. Bach, Chorale Prelude on Durch Adams Fall, BWV 637
ripieno. full orchestra
Ritornello Form
Standard for for fas movements in concertos in the first half of the eighteenth century, featuring a ritornello for full orchestra that alternates with episodes characterized by virtuosic material played by one or more soloists.
example: Vivaldi, Concerto for Violin And Orchestra in A minor, Opus 3, no. 6, Allegro Movement
subsidiary passage between presentations of the thematic material (ritornello.
EXAMPLE: Vivaldi, Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A minor, Op. 3, no 6 allegro movement, SOLO violin.
male singers who were castrated before puberty to preserve their high vocal range, prominent int eh seventeenth and early 18th century, especially in Opera.
EXAMPLES: Farinelli- trained in Naples.
Pio Ospedale della Pieta
one of four hospitals in Venice, home for orphaned illegitimate or poor boys and girls, ran like boarding schools and provided excellent institution to girls who showed talent.

EXAMPLE: Antonio Vivaldi was the musical director, Gloria in D Major

Concert Spirituel
Paris’s most prestigious concert organization that had a public concert series founded in 1725.
suites(set of orchestral pieces)
EXAMPLE: Francois Couperin, Vingt cinqueme ordre 1,4
L’arte de toucher le clavecin
(Art of playing the harpsichord, 1716) most important sources for performance practice of the French Baroque written by Francois Couperin.
Les nations
(The Nations, 1726) Francois Couperin’s collection that contains 4 ordres , each consisting of a sonata di chiesa in several movements followed by dance suites that combining the most characteristic genres sets of France and Italy in a single set.
Traite de l’harmonie
(treatise on Harmony, 1722) most influential theoretical works ever written.
Fundamental Bass
Term coined by Jean-Phillip Rameau to indicate the succession of the roots or fundamental tones in a series of chords.
ex. Hippolyte et Aricie(ACT IV)by Jean Phillipe Rameau
(Little Organ Book) 45 short chorale preludes was used as introduction before the congregation sang the chorale, intended for beginner organists requiring use of the pedal.
Well-tempered Clavier
2 keyboard books, each consisting of 24 preludes and fugue pairs, in each minor and major key meant to demonstrate the keyboard’s demonstrate the equal temperament of piano.
Goldberg Variations
(1741) GROUP OF 30 variations that reserve the bass/harmonic structure of the theme (sarabande).
Musical Offering
3 and 6 part ricercare for keyboard and ten canons based on a theme proposed by Fred the Great created out of improvisation.
Art of Fugue
Book in Bach’s last decade of life demonstrating all fugal writing types contains 18 canons and fugues all based on the subject.

Example: Last Fugue, name spelling BACH(B-natural)

Brandenburg Concertos
(1721) Bach’s best known orchestral work that alternates between Italian concerto and orchestral concertos.
St. Matthew Passion
(1727, 1736) base don Matthew 26-27 that employs recitatives, arias, ensembles, choruses, chorales sung by chorus, and orchestral accompaniment.
Mass in B minor
(1733)-Bach’s only complete setting of the Catholic Mass Ordinary which had some music borrowed from early works.
Cantus Firmus
an existing melody; often taken form a Gregorian chant in which a new polyphonic work is based; used especially for melodies presented in long notes.
Church cantata
setting of sacred music that adds poetic texts along with all the great traditions of chorale, solo song and the concertato medium, aria and recitative.
Chorale cantata
sacred music in which the original chorale is presented, but inner stanzas has unrelated music and poetic texts, and ends with a 4-part harmonic setting of the same chorale
yearly cycle of catholic music.

EXAMPLE: Bach, Nun Komm, der Heien Heiland in cycle 2

Erdmann Neumeister
(1671-1756) person who coined and structured for the chorale cantata.
King George I
consequent ruler after Handel’s first London patron, Queen Anne, that doubled Handel’s pension to 400 pounds.
Royal Academy of Music
joint stock company here 60 wealthy gentleman produced Italian opera with the support of king.
EXAMPLE: performing Handel, Giulio Cesare at King’s theatre in the Haymarket.
King’s Theatre in the Haymarket
theatre where Handel served music director where he recruited German singers with the Royal academy of music.
florid ornamentation.
English oratorio
(with English Text) Genre of dramatic music that originated int eh seventeenth century combining narrative, dialogue, commentary through arias, recitatives, ensembles, choruses, and instrumental music like an unstaged opera.
(1741)oratorio that offers a series of contemplations on the Christian idea of redemption using biblical text going through the life of Christ to his resurrection.
Water Music
(1717)Handel’s instrumental piece that contains 3 suites for winds and strings played from a royal precession on the River Thames for the king.
Music for the Royal Fireworks
(1749) Handel’s piece for winds composed to accompany fireworks set off in a London park to celebrate the Peace of Aix la-Chapelle.
prima donna
the soprano singing the leading female role who sought to have the best airs which Handel wrote for.
(Bach Society) was founded by Schumann that collected and published a collected edition of Bach’s works.
St. Thomas School
Germany’s leading university in Leipzig that had 50-60 students on scholarship for their musical and scholastic abilities.
What was the most important form of vocal chamber music on the Italian peninsula around 1700?
What are outsanding features of Scarlatti’s composition style-in other words, what sorts of musical devices does he use to portray moments of heightened emotion?
Scarlatti used diminished chords for strong emotion, varied from minor to major and paired text with the natural speech rhythm.
What are the main features of the music of Arcangelo Corelli? What genres did he favor? What were the characteristics of his compositional style?
Simple lyricism over virtuosity, thematic independence & tonality were his main features. He favored sonatas. His key compositional style include moving suspensions and sequences.
What were the most prominent genres of the late seventeenth century?
Sonatas, concertos, operas, cantatas, toccatas, suites.
What is the German synthesis discussed in your textbook? Why do we care?
n synthesis is the 17th century’s composers and musicians incorporation of French, Italian and native styles into their works. We care because of their cosmopolitan mindset greatly influenced the compositional virtuosos of the 18th century including: Handel, Bach and Gluck.
What is the significance of Vivaldi’s Op.3? Why are we studying it? What does it demonstrate for us in terms of the instrumental style of the Italian baroque?
Vivaldi’s Op.3 significance lies in the fact that it is a prime example of the pieces Vivaldi was well known for(concertos). We are studying it so we can recognize the trend he set in using the ritornello form . In terms of the instrumental style of the Italian high baroque, the piece demonstrates the virtuosity of the solo violin episodes, and the way the ritornello establishes or follows the key changes as found in most ritornello forms.
What are the differences between concerto, concerto grosso, and orchestral concerto?
Unlike he others, oncertos call for a solo instruments to oppose the orchestra, not to double or reinforce the orchestra. Also the violins are against a full orchestra unlike the concerto grosso and it doesn’t have as much bass lineemphasis as there is in an orchestra concerto.
How did Couperin Make use of Italian Styles?
He used the sonata da chiesa and would ofen use walking basses, circle of fifth harmonic progressions just like Corelli.
In what way do the operas of Rameau differ from those of Lully?
Rameau’s opera differ for Lully because he rooted the melody in the HARMONY, added focus to the fundamental bass, and based the harmonic progressions on dominants, subdominants and modulations.
How did Bach’s employment shaped his compositional output?
Bach’s employment didcted what he composed. While at Arnstadt and Mulhausen, he wrote organ music. At Weimar, he wrote cantatas. In Cothen he composed solo and ensemble music. Lastly, in Leipzig, he composed cantatas, church music and collections for his teaching.
Bach created several major works that were systematic and comprehensive approaches to a medium or genre. Briefly describe these works and then discuss of two of them in detail?
In the Orgelbuchen: 45 choral prelude preludes are played by organ. The Well tempered clavier has 24 prelude and fugure pairs explores every major and minor key. it was composed to demonstrate the advantages of an equal temperament piano and to act as students’ etudes. The art of fugue demonstrates fugal writing include EIGHTEEN CANONS and fugues in the strictest style increasing with difficulty with each piece.
Compare the careers of Bach and Handel?
Their careers differ because Bach didn’t become well known until the 19th century. Only his fellow musicians used his works/collections However, Handel was being played constantly while he was living. Another thing is that Handel was a free bachelor who had the ability to leave town to London and Bach stayed in Germany, permanently residing in Leipzig, working at the St. Thomas School. Handel worked for electors while Bach worked for the schools and churches.
How can Handel’s music be seen as a synthesis of international styles?
Giulio Cesare, Opera Reference:
1.Italian-da capo arias, concertato style 2.French-use of winds, sarabande rhythm 3. German-Double string, German dialogues, chorus.
EX. Messiah and Giulio Cesare