Nicolo Jommelli
1714-1774, Italian composer, thought opera should be more natural, one of the most important figures in the movement of reform; composed some one hundred stage works, was greatly popular
Tommaso Traetta
1727-1779, Italian composer, thought opera should be more natural, another important figure in the movement of reform, combined Italian and French opera (French tragedie lyrique and Italian opera seria in his Ippolito ed Aricia (1759)), adapted Ippolito ed Aricia from the same libretto that Rameau had set and utilized some of Rameau’s dance music and descriptive
Christoph Willibald Gluck
1714-1787; born in what is now Bavaria of Bohemian parents; visited London, toured in Germany as conductor of an opera troupe, became court composer to the emperor Charles VI at Vienna, and triumphed in Paris under the patronage of Marie Antoinette; early operas were conventional (Italian style); was influenced by the impresario Giacomo Drazzo; collaborated with the poet Raniero de Calzabigi to produce Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) and Alceste (1767);wanted to confine music to its proper function—to serve the poetry and advance the plot; didn’t want singers or Da capo to limit him; lessoned contrast between recitative and aria; wanted simplistic and natural; wanted to make the overture an important part of the opera and to lessen the contrast between aria and recitative in order to foster musical continuity; the climax of his carrier was the Paris production of Iphigenia in Aulis in 1774; another master piece was Iphigenia in Tauris, 1779; influenced Niccolo Piccinni, Luigi Cherubini, and Hector Berlioz. P. 327-328 in text. War of the Buffoons: Gluck wanted to prove that a good opera could be written to French words, wanted to create music suited to all nations p. 328. Gluck redid Orfeo and Alceste in French for France.
Raniero de Calzabigi
1714-1795, poet who collaborated with Gluck to produce at Vienna Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) and Alceste (1767)
Orfeo ed Euridice
1762; Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck; librettist Raniero de Calzabigi; Gluck used two orchestras: one represented the Furies (orchestra) the other represented Orfeo (strings and harp represented his lute); mixed Italian melody, German seriousness, and tragedy of French
1767; Opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck; librettist Raniero de Calzabigi; more dramatic and monumental in contrast to the prevailingly pastoral and elegiac tone of Orfeo
Iphigenie en Aulide
the climax of his career produced in Paris in 1774; libretto adapted from Racine’s tragedy; great success
Iphigenie en Tauride
1779; work of large proportions; excellent balance of musical forces; utilizes all the resources of opera—orchestra, ballet, solo and choral singing p. 328
one of the principal German centers of symphonic composition after 1740;the Mannheirm orchestra was lead by Johann Stamitz (1717-1757) became renowned all over Europe for its virtuosity, its astonishing and novel dynamic range, and the thrilling sound of its crescendo (many of the striking dynamic effects and the dramatic contrasts were adapted from the Italian opera overture)
Johann Stamitz
1717-1757, leader of the Mannheim orchestra
Johann Christian Bach
1735-1782; J. S. Bach’s youngest son; one of the first to compose piano concertos; composed symphonies, chamber music, keyboard music, and operas; was trained by his father and older brother C. P. E. Bach, studied with Padre Givanni Battista Martini, appointed organist of the cathedral at Milan in 1760, had two successfully produced operas in Naples; moved to London in 1762 where he was a composer, performer, teacher, and impresario; 40 keyboard concertos written between 1763-1777; composed “Op. 7 Six Concertos for Harpsichord or Pianoforte”;8 year old Mozart meat him in London and was very impressed with him