even- tempered tuning
tuning by half steps
figured bass
compositional device in baroque period where by the bey board part only has the bass note with numbers that the right hand has to play
elaborate, melodic embellishments
rapid alternation between 2 notes
starting on an upper note then go up then back to the middle then lower note (only play it once)
same melodic motive repeated at different pitches
an accompanying part that includes a bass line and harmonies
doctrine in affections
theory in musical aesthetics popular in the Baroque era
collection of dancelike movements or dances for soloist (instruments) or a group of instruments
solo sonata
for 1 soloist and 3 people
trio sonata
2 soloist, 4 people on stage
unaccompanied solo sonata
1 on stage
sonata da chiesa
in churches and its by tempo
sonata da camera
more for entertainment like in a drawing room
Domenico Scarlatti 1685-1757
over 600 sonatas for harpsicord and one of the founders of the keyboard technique
type of composition based on alternation of contrast between soloist and orchestra (concerto grosso)
1st movement of baroque concerto
they alternate with orchestra playing the same material
when the soloist and orchestra play together
the soloist (can have more than 1)
portative organ
portable organ (small)
positive organ
large built in organ that was usually in churches
antonio vivaldi
concertos for every instrument (over 500)
wrote sacred and secular music
red headed and a violenist
J.S. Bach 1685-1750
born in Germany, musical family, a violinist and organist, lutheran, write music for port cities in Germany, choral music, masses and motets, wrote keyboard pieces, became director of music of St. Thomas church, not well known in life time, best of improv
a type of composition based on the initial presentation of a melody called the subject which is then repeated through imitation throughout the piece
The art of the fugue
1-subject, 2- answer, 3- subject all of this together is called episodes (counter subject is the same as answer)
short improv piece that precedes a fugue
more complex
a play in which dialogue is sung with orchestral accompaniment it also has costumes and scenery sometimes they even act
florentine camerata
interested in revival of ancient greek dramas and they study greek plays, they also said greeks sung
stile rappresentative
basis for baroque opera- most important component
a simple line with choral accompaniment so that the text could be understood
Claudio Monteverdi
seconda prattica and sublimated music to the text
written in 1607 by Montiverdi and it was an opera
neopolitan opera
Naples, more homophonic, melody on top and everything else was harmony
Alessandro Scarlatti
founder of Neapolitan opera
opera seria
more homophonic and melody on top with everything else harmony
opera buffa
dealt with the lives of everyday people, low brow entertainment and evolved into operas of mozart
smaller work for orchestra, chorus and soloist and was mainly sacred
large work for orchestra, chorus and soloist, more secular
The Messiah
1741- handel- opera without staging, 3 sections, 1 section is the birth 2nd is the crucifixion of Jesus, and the 3rd section is the resurrection of Jesus and redemption of man kind. Accompaniments small string orchestra with winds and tympani
Baroque Chorus
4 part pices for Soprano, alto , tenor, bass
Tenor and orchestra with many people per section
Baroque Aria
soloist with orchestral accompaniment and the melodic lines are less ornate and lots of sequences
Baroque secco recitative
free rhythm, sung by one person, accompanied by continuo or orchestra and the notes further the thoughts
accompagnato recitative
sung by one person, accompanied by continuo or orchestra and the notes further the thoughts and its shorter and has a stricter rhythm
George Frederic Handel 1685-1759
early career was in Italy, he was German, wrote 36 operas between 1712 and 1741 one of them being Julius Caesar
Jean Baptiste Lully
dignity, ballet, stylized sword fights, composer for Louis the fourteenth
Dates of Baroque Period
More than one singer? (not sure about this one)