What was the earliest form of music notation? Where was it developed?
Cuneiform; Mesopotamia
Why was Pythagoras important in relation to music?
Pythagoras was sort of the forefather of music theory. He conceived of music in a radically different way than we do. Pythagoras and his followers saw relationships between numbers and everything in their life.
He discovered that in a P5 the notes exist in a 3-2 relationship. Figured out the P4 and etc. An entire mythology of Pythagoras was created due to his discoveries.
Who wrote Harmony of the Spheres, and why is it significant?
Plato, it reflected his belief that music bears similarities to the planets and their orbits.
Who wrote the Doctrine of Imitation? What does it say?
Aristotle; It says that music has a big effect on ethos. Somebody’s emotions, and even character can be changed by music.
According to the Greeks, ____ trains the mind and emotions of the body. _______ trains the kinesthetic and muscles of the body. There needs to be a balance between the two.
Music; Gymnastics
Describe the Aulos. How is it played? What Greek God was it played in tribute to?
It is a double reed instrument with what looks like two flutes on each end. There is a headpiece used to hold it to the face. Historians aren’t sure how it was exactly played, but they know it was played with one hand per flute.
What is the difference between a kithara and a lyre?
A Kithara is a bigger more ornate lyre.
What are the 8 scales mentioned in the Medieval Music Treatises? What is the general range for each one?
1.Dorian D-D
2.Hypodorian- A to A
3.Phyrigian- E- E
4.Hypophrygian B-B
5.Lydian- F – F
6.Hypolydian C-C
7.Mixolydian G –G
8.Hypomixolydian D – D
Who was Boethius? What were three important concepts addressed in his published work (along with its name)?
He wrote De institutione musica; Musica mundana (cosmic music) – music exists in the orbits of the planets
-Musica humana – music exists within our bodies (the beating of our hearts, the periodic pulsing of blood throughout our bodies, even the nervous system)
-Musica instrumentalis- relates to humans making music
What is a basic evolution of musical notation starting AFTER cuneiform? Give a description with each one.
-Neumatic(ca 950) –notation doesn’t serve as reliable way to preserve melody. It was used primarily as a memory aid to help remind someone of the melody who already knows the melody.
-Heightened (diastematic) (1050-1150) – Scribes copied over documents. Instead of dipping it ink, they scratched a line in the parchment. It’s thought that the line would represent a fixed pitch, and notes below and above were lower and higher respectively
-Guidonian (1150) – Guido di Arezzo invented the idea of having fixed lines
-Solesmes (late 19th century)—created by singers of gregorian chant in France in the Abbey of Solesmes. This attempts to borrow both modern and medieval notation
What was the Myth of St. Gregory? Who created it and why was important?
This was a myth created by Charlemagne that was almost propaganda-like in nature. It showed that St. Gregory wrote in Gregorian chant. Though it lacked truth, people believed it and started utilizing Gregorian chant for the first time, which unified a standardization of music.
What are the three manners of performance of chant?
Responsorial – Cantor sings, choir sings
Antiphonal – alternating between two halves singing passages
What are the three primary text settings?
Syllabic- one music note per syllable
-Mellismatic- many notes on just one syllable of text
-Neumatic – a kind of compromise between the two.
What two things was the Liturgy comprised of? Give a description of each
Mass – A lot of sections of the mass are spoken by a priest, others are intoned. Some Gregorian chants performed once a year
-Office (canonical hours) 8 times daily. At sunset, they had vespers. Chants throughout their day, very carefully prescribed by the church calendar.
What is the Liber Usualis?
20th-c, edition of most used chants compiled by the monks of Solesmes (like a Greatest Hits of Gregorian chant)
What are tropes? When was it banned?
The addition of new words to the liturgy, new melismas to chants, or new chants altogether. Mid 1500’s
What is prosula?
Text added to a melisma in Gregorian Chant. It is an example of a trope
What are the two types of Early Organum?
Parallel organum- Usually polyphonic with parallel motion between voices
-Mixed parallel and oblique organum In this you have two voices start in unison, one ascends until a certain interval (in this example a P5) and then the other ascends or changes as well
Winchester Troper
important collection of early organum. Just the organal voice notated not the principal; in neumatic notation.
What is free organum?
utilizes mixture of parallel, contrary, and oblique motion
Describe Aquitanian Polyphony
Developed in France
Principal voice below (“tenor”), organal above (also called the duplum or second voice)
Much more florid organal voice
Two textures:
“Discant” – tenor voice (chant voice) moves along at a more rapid clip and actually keeps up with the upper part
“Organum purum or organum” tenor or chant voice is sustained for long periods of time while the melody above it has lots of notes
Who were the two main composers of Notre Dame Polyphony? What is important about each of them?
Leonin- First composer to take ownership of music. He wrote organum purum.

Perotin- Specialist in discant, triplum, quatranum

The Notre Dame School developed new innovations in regards to rhythm. What were the new innovations?
Ligatures, They came up with different rhythmic modes.
Describe what incipits were. When were they utilized?
these are added to modern editions of the pieces. It is used to show scholars what the notation looks like in the very beginning of the piece. And to let them know what the clefs were and the style of the piece etc.
What is a clausula? What is a substitute clasula?
Clausula – the name for a specific section of discant within a larger piece of organum
Substitute Clausula- a new clausula written to take the place of an older one in a piece of organum
What is the early definition of motet in regards to clausula?
A new composition created by adding new text to the upper parts of clausulae or substitute clausulae. Initially somebody took that substitute clausulae and gave a theme to the Mass of that given day
How did the motet change/evolve? (Hint: There are 4 new styles of motets)
Early Motet: sacred, Latin above discant [(Latin is the language of God at this time)
French Motet: secular, stand-alone work [Pg 100]
Polytextual Motet: 2, 3 voices. above borrowed voice [Pg 104-105]
Franconian motet, after Franco of Cologne: new rhythmic precision [Pg 109] Franco made the new advance of notating rhythm Specifies individual duration of notes. This has way more rhythmic variety.
In Ars Nova, what are the 3 aspects of mensural notation?
Tempus- Time
Prolation- How the time is subdivided
Minims- they broke the time down into the smallest amount of time possible
What is Eye Music?
Composers that make their music really attractive on the page as well as on the ear. So the composers would make the music resemble what their piece is about. (We looked at a piece shaped into a heart)
In Isorhyhtm, what is the difference between color and talea? How do these work together?
The color is the melody/tune without rhythm. The talea is the rhythm pattern without melody. The color and talea cycle, but not at the same time. The talea cycles quicker. So the rhythm cycles before the tune does, making it change
What is musica ficta?
Composers are still imagining music in the 8 church modes of music. They used the notes that we considered the white notes on the piano. Singers started singing these differently because they thought it sounded better. We debate about musica ficta today, because we don’t have recordings of what they did.
What does performance practice mean?
Performance practice- a term we use today to refer to all of the decisions musicians make that are not on the page but something that seasoned player uses to play that is particular
Three styles of performing plainchant?
Antiphonal- Half choir- half congregation, alter singing.
What are flagilant songs?
Monks would go around singing and beating themselves to show their subservience to God.
Formes Fixes
1.Ballade – Three stanzas. Form of each stanza is aabC. The a sections usually have different endings. The first is open and the second is closed, as in an estampie. The refrain may repeat the closing passage of the second a section to create a musical rhyme.
a. Stanza: a a b ; Refrain: C ; Stanza a a b ; Refrain: C
2.Rondeau- One stanza. Framed by a refrain that includes both sections of music used for the stanza. The first half of the refrain returns midway through the piece between the a sections.
a. Refrain: A B ; Stanza begins a ; Half-Refrain A ; stanza continues a b ; Refrain A B
b. In practice, the refrain is so closely integrated with the other lines of poetry that the entire poem functinos as a single stanza with repeating lines whose impact deepens with each repetition. Typically, the A section cadences without finality, akin to an open ending, The B section may echo the final passage of the A section, but closes conclusively on the tonal center.
3.Virelai – 3 stanzas. Each is preceded and followed by a refrain. Refrain uses same music as last section of the stanza melody; because refrain appears first, it is given letter A so that stanza is shown as bba rather than aab. The b sections often have open and closed endlings like the a sections of a ballade.
a. Refrain A ; Stanza b b a ; Refrain A ; Stanza b b a ; Refrain A ; Stanza b b a; Refrain A
In the Ars Nova ______ are polyphonic songs. What style are those in? What does that style mean?
Chansons; Treble-dominated; upper voice carrying the text, called the cantus or the treble, is the principal line, supported by a slower- moving tenor without text.
Cantus Firmus became another term for what?
A new term cantus firmus came to mean the Gregorian chant
What are the three polyphonic secular genres?
-Madrigal [ a a b a a b a a b…]
-Caccia [imitative; round]
-Ballata [ A b b a A] (see NAWM p 158)
What was important musically about the Hundred Years War?
Played a significant role in the transmission of musical styles to form a cosmopolitan style
Characteristics of Contenance angloise
Frequent use of harmonic thirds and sixths
Pervasive consonance
Regular melodic phrasing
Simple melodies
Primarily syllabic text settings
Homorhythmic textures
Difference between Faburden and Faux Bourdon
Faburden–Rule based system for improvising polyphony on a chant
“Fa” frequency of Bb and Eb a P5 under the Chant
“Burden”- lowest voice
Used mostly for Offices and Mass
Practiced for over a century

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Faux Bourdon
Different Procedure than Faburden
Top voice sings the chant; not improvised
Short lived

Cantus Firmus Mass
Principal mass type be mid 15th century
Each mvmt is contructed around a cantus firmus
Usually in the tenor (sacred or secular)
Practice adopted from the isorhythmic motet
Commonly 4 voice texture
True or False: Setting the entire Ordinary mass became the norm in the 15th century
In the Renaissance what philosophical movement became extremely important?
What are characteristics of Josquin’s texture in his music?
-Variety of textures
– Pervasive use of imitation
-Equality of parts
-Seamless sound
Cadences and harmony
-More triads, raicher sound
-“Drive to the cadence”—this is the composer trying to make you feel slightly more anxious before you reach a cadence.
-Tonal coherence
Text-music relationship (rooted in Humanism)
-Meaning of text affects musical setting
-Structure of text determines cadence placement
Composers of the Renaissance felt great concern for drawing out the meaning of the text in their music. So matching music & text.
In the Protestant Reformation, who was Martin Luther and what was his musical genre? Jean Calvin?
Martin Luther was the father of Lutheranism and he created the Lutheran Chorale. Text in German. he wanted this to be sung monophonically. Some times he wrote these from scratch, other times he took well-known hymns from the Catholic church, changed the text to German, and altered the melody a little bit.
Jean Calvin was the father of Calvinism. His musical genre was the Metrical Psalm. He believed that people should not sing any words in church that were written by men. Only words written by God. So only straight from the Bible. He took the Latin psalms and translated them into the vernacular (in this case French). Eventually they got translated by other Calvinists into English.
What group was formed in the Catholic Counter Reformation? How did they affect music?
The Council of Trent. They banned troping and almost banned polyphony.
What movement is Palestrina most associated with? Characteristics of his music?
The Catholic Counter Reformation. He is considered the Savior of Polyphony, even though it isn’t exactly true.

Careful treatment of dissonance and consonance in relation to the beat
-Graceful melodic contour
Clarity of text declamation

Who were the four late masters of the Renaissance? What was their nationality?
Victoria (Spanish)
Palestrina (Italian)
Orlan d’ Lassus (Franco-Flemish; Italian)
William Byrd (English)
Tomas Luis de Victoria was a contemporary of who? Was his music sacred or secular?
Palestrina. Exclusive sacred content.
What was extremely important in the Italian madrigal? What is the form and why is it in this form?
The text. Through composed, because if each moment of the piece counts, then there is no need for refrains or verses.
What was the Petrarchan movement?
It was a movement in the Renaissance where literature became important. Petrarch was a Greek poet.
Who was Cipriano de Rore?
Leading Flemish Madrigalist
Who utilized a lot of chromaticism? (Hint: He killed his cheating bitch-ass wife)
What are the three genres of dance instrumental music?
Pavane, Galliard, Estampie
Plainsong mass? Example:

Cantus Firmus Mass? Example:

Parody/Imitation Mass? Example:

Paraphrase Mass? Example:

Free Mass? Example:

Plainsong mass- each of its sections takes a plainsong borrowed from that Gregorian chant repertory
Machaut Notre Dame

Cantus firmus mass – The cantus firmus is shared amongst all the different movements.
Dufay Missa se la face ay pale

Paraphrase mass –
Josquin Missa Pange lingua [not on our list]

Parody mass – can start with a polyphonic source, but what is borrowed from it are sections from the entire polyphonic texture. Sections of polyphony are reworked in the new piece.
Vittoria, Missa O magnum mysterium

Free mass- borrows no preexisting content
Palestrina Pope Marcellus mass