A keyboard instrument invented in 1700 that uses a mechanism in which the strings are struck, rather than plucked as the harpsichord was, and which allowed for crescendos, dimuendos, and other effects.
Objectified or archetypal emotions or states of mind, such as sadness, joy, fear, or wonder; one goal of much BAROQUE music was to arouse the affections.
A passage or section in an OPERA, ORATORIO, CANTATA, or other vocal work in RECITATIVE STYLE. As part of an intermezzi. Exemplified in the The Maid as Mistress opening conversation is set in simple recitative ·
Aria (Italian, “air”)
Lyrical monologue in an OPERA or other vocal work such as CANTATA and ORATORIO.
Opera Buffa
Eighteenth-century GENRE of Italian comic OPERA, sung throughout. Stylistic features of the Classical era first appeared in Italian opera.
Eighteenth-century GENRE of Italian comic OPERA, performed between acts of a serious OPERA or play Originated as a short comic musical interlude between the acts of a serious opera or play
Opera Comique
(1) In the eighteenth century, light French comic OPERA, which used spoken dialogue instead of RECITATIVES. (2) In nineteenth-century France, opera with spoken dialogue, whether comic or tragic. Began around 1710 and used simple popular tunes known as vaudevilles.
Keyboard Sontata
FORM typically used in first MOVEMENTS of SONATAS, instrumental chamber works, and SYMPHONIES during the CLASSICAL and ROMANTIC PERIODS. An expansion of ROUNDED BINARY FORM, it was described in the nineteenth century as consisting of an EXPOSITION, DEVELOPMENT, and RECAPITULATION based on a limited number of THEMES.
(1) Generic term used throughout the seventeenth century for an abstract ENSEMBLE piece, especially one that serves as an introduction to a vocal work. (2) Italian OPERA OVERTURE in the early eighteenth century. Had a three-movement structure. ·Allegro ·Short lyrical Andante ·
Large work for ORCHESTRA, usually in four MOVEMENTS.
Sturm und Drang
“storm and stress”—a movement in German literature that relished tormented, gloomy, terrified, irrational feelings