Haydn worked for thirty years in this court with formitable duties. He was not allowed to publish his works, and only prepared them for the King. Orchestra was abbout 25 strong, but all were skilled. The Count here played Barytone, a large stringed instrument that appears in many of his works.
Johann Peter Salomon
worked with Haydn to get him outside commissions. Organized London Symphonies (Nos. 93-104) during the 1790s for a concert series
The Farewell Symphony
Written as a hint to Prince Eszterhazy that it was time to let the musicians see their families. The final Presto leads to an Adagio, in which players conclude their parts and leave; only two first violins remain at the end.
The Paris Symphony
The Concerts de la Loge Olympique commissioned the works. ·Orchestra size: flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, and strings, occasionally augmented by trumpets and timpani ·
The Creation
Haydn heard Handels oratorios and was greatly moved. This, based on Genesis and Milton’s Paradise Lost Haydn’s Depiction of Chaos at the beginning is remarkable for its harmonies and drama
The Seasons
(1801), Oratorio by Haydn, from a poem by James Thomson
Baron Gottfreid van Sweiten
Haydn’s Libbrettist for both the creations and the seasons
Jupiter Symphony
Mozart wrote only six symphonies in his Vienna years; each was a masterpiece. Jupiter begins with forceful unison statements, followed by delicate responses that are later blended in counterpoint. The finale to the Jupiter is a contrapuntal masterpiece, in which the coda links five themes together in a passage of ars combinatoria (the art of musical combination and permutation). *Title not given by Mozart
Die Enfuhrung aus dem Serail
(1782) established Mozart’s operatic reputation.1. Mozart raised the singspiel to the level of an artwork. 2. The “oriental” setting was popular, and Mozart uses Turkish-style music.
Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749-1838)
provided librettos for Mozart next three operas. * The Marriage of Figaro (1786) * Don Giovanni (Don Juan, 1787) * Cosi fan tutte (Thus Do All Women, 1790)
Die Zauberflote (The Magic Flute, 1791)
1. This singspiel was composed in the last year of Mozart’s life. 2. The story contains symbolism, drawn largely from the teachings and ceremonies of Freemasonry. 3. Mozart interweaves a wide variety of vocal styles.sonata-rondo
Mozart composed serenades and divertimenti in the 1770s and early 1780s for outdoor performances; the most familiar of Mozart’s serenades is Eine kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music, K. 525; 1787)
Mozart had substance to his cadenzas, it developed from the trills and runs that singers inserted; Mozart’s early cadenzas similarly consisted of flourishes without thematic links to the movement but after the 1780s they served to balance the longer modulatory or development sections; cast new light on familiar material in daring flights of technical wizardry
Leopold Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s father; trained both Mozart and his sister, Marianne or Nannerl, and took them throughout Europe; served in the archbishop’s chapel and became its assistant director in Salzburg; composer; author of a treatise on violin playing; had a strained relationship with Mozart
1781; an opera seria Mozart was commissions to compose for Munich; shows the influence of Gluck and the French tragedie lyrique
Mozart’s Haydn quartets
1785; 6 quartets; Italianate melody; intensive motivic development; ex: The String Quartet in D minor K. 421