The Baroque era was the first period of music to use the ____________ system of tonality almost exclusively.
The system of music notation where numbers are placed below the bass line to indicate chord tones is called ________________.
Figured bass
What is a basso continuo or thorough bass?
This terms describe the Baroque era musical practice of having a bass part, with accompanying harmonies, run continously throughout a work The basso continuo was usually played by the harpsichord or organ, or a low string instrument in combination with a keyboard instrument.
Name the tuning system in which all semitones within the octave are exactly equal in size, allowing music in all keys to sound equally “in tune”.
Equal temperament
What are terraced dynamics?
When dynamic levels shift abruptly from soft to loud (and back again) without gradual crescendos and decrescendos. Characteristic of Baroque era music and a musical feature that occurred naturally on the harpsichord as it switched between using one or two keyboards at the same time.
Describe the Baroque Era (Doctrine of) the Affections.
A theory which attempted to explain how emotions could be expressed through music: happiness meaning the use of faster notes and major keys; sadness through minor keys and slower movement; and anger through loudness and harsh discordant harmonies. In general, it was expected that only one emotion or Affection would be expressed throughout a piece, or a section of a piece.
Describe what “word painting” refers to.
Word painting is the technique of creating “pictures” based on the meaning of the words – emotions, actions, descriptions. This can be done through melodic shape, rhythmic motives and/or harmonies. The music of singers or instrumentalists may contain word painting.
What is a ritornello, and what is ritornello form?
Ritornello form (Baroque Era) refers to the practice of restating a passage of music (called the ritornello) throughout a movement of music. Ritornello passages are usually “tutti” passages – all of the instruments play. Ritornello passages alternate

a) in a concerto, with solo or concertino passages;

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b) in an aria, with sung passages.

Give at least three characteristics of the Baroque Era solo concerto.
1) Popular instrumental genre in which a featured soloist is “concerted” against (or set in opposition to) an orchestra (the ripieno).

2) Usually in three movements: fast-slow-fast

3) Movements often use ritornello form, in which a distinctive passage of music is repeated several times throughout.

4) Solo concertos are written specifically to show off the soloist’s virtuosity (ability to play flashy, difficult music).

What does “ripieno” mean?
In a Baroque concerto, the large group of instruments that provides the backdrop or “opposition” for the more virtuostic soloist (in a solo concerto).
Define the term “concertino”.
The small group of soloists in a Baroque concerto that is set against the larger instrumental group, or ripieno/tutti. In a solo concerto, a solo instrument
replaces the concertino.
Give the term that refers to a rhythmic/melodic pattern that is repeated for an extended period of time, usually as a part of the accompaniment.
What does the word “Baroque” or “barroco” mean?
“Baroque” is a French translation of the Portuguese word barroco meaning irregular pearl or false jewel. The word was used by 18th-century critics to comment on what the saw as the excesses of the style, in contrast to the simpler, more balanced style of the Classical era.
What is an oratorio, and how is an oratorio different from an opera?
An oratorio is a large-scale, dramatic composition for solo voices and choir. Unlike opera, oratorios do not use costumes or scenery (they are unstaged). Oratorio texts are usually based on religious subjects.
What is an opera?
Large-scale, dramatic composition for solo voices and choir. Unlike opera, oratorios do not use costumes or scenery (they are unstaged). Oratorio texts are usually based on religious subjects.
Describe recitative secco.
A recitative is a sung narrative that follows the natural flow of language (it is speech-like). “Secco” means “dry” in Italian – musically, this describes a sparse accompaniment, such as a few chords played by the basso continuo. Often a weak or no perceived metric pulse.
Describe recitative accompagnato. How it this different from recitative secco?
“Accompagnato” means that there is instrumental accompaniment to the vocal soloist – substantially more so than in recitative secco. There is often a stronger metric pulse, as well.
What is a “pedal tone” or “drone”?
A low sustained tone played in the lowest (bass) part of a composition while the other parts/voices move above it.
What is the word for “all” that refers to the performance of a passage of music in which all of the instruments that are present play together.
Music in AB or two-part form, where each section is usually repeated, is said to be in __________ form.
Describe ternary form.
A compositional form which consists of 3 sections, an A section (opening material), a B section (contrasting material) and a final A section which restates the opening.
What is a prelude (as in “Prelude and Fugue”)?
“Prelude” means ‘to come before’. J.S. Bach wrote 48 preludes and fugues in two volumes entitled The Well-Tempered Clavier (a clavier being a keyboard instrument). Each prelude has one rhythmic idea as a unifying device. Preludes are often more harmonically-oriented as opposed to the complex counterpoint found in the fugue that follows.
Give a description of what a fugue is.
Genre of contrapuntal music originating in the Baroque period in which a melodic theme or “subject” is introduced by one voice and is then imitated by each of the other voices. The piece then alternates between instances or “entries” of the theme and “episodes” of counterpoint in which the theme is not present.
Give the term for the following:

In a fugue, the first thing one hears; it is the melodic theme upon which the fugue is based. It is stated by one of the fugue’s 3-6 voices/parts. It is followed by the answer the countersubject (if there is one).

Give the term for the following:

In a fugue, the second entry of the theme, following the subject. It is in a different voice and implies either dominant harmony or the dominant key.

What is the difference between a real answer and a tonal answer, in a fugue?
Answers containing the same melodic intervals as the subject are real answers; if altered, the answer is a tonal answer.
What is the purpose, in a fugue, of the countersubject and when/where does it appear?
In a fugue, the countersubject is a secondary, recurring theme in a fugue. It is heard for the first time at the same time as the answer, in a separate voice. It may be heard against any theme entry after that. Sometimes there are two or more countersubjects in a fugue – or no countersubject.
Describe the function played episodes in a fugue.
In fugues, an episode is a passage between entries of the theme (subject or answer) that is an area of relaxation. Episodes do not contain any theme entries. Fugues generally alternate between subject entry sections and episodes.
What is the word used to describe a situation in a fugue where two entries of the theme (subject or answer) overlap one another? Hint: This often occurs near the end of a fugue.
What is a homorhythmic texture?
A musical texture where all the parts sing with the same rhythm at the same time, though not necessarily the same notes. Example: opening of the “Hallelujah” chorus from Handel’s Messiah.
Give the term for when a single word or syllable is sung over a series of notes. Often a part of word painting, to give emphasis and importance to certain words.
Describe the form and musical characteristics of a typical Baroque era French Overture.
A French overture, often used as an introductory movement to an oratorio, opera or suite, is in AB (binary) form: A is slow and stately/regal with dotted rhythms; B is lively and contrapuntal (often fugal). A may be repeated, creating a ternary (ABA) form.
What is a chorus?
a) A group of singers who usually sing in parts with several voices on each part.

b) A performing group in its own right

(c) Piece sung by a choir that is a part of a larger vocal work such as opera and oratorios. A famous example of a work that uses a chorus is Handel’s “Hallelujah” Chorus from the oratorio Messiah.

Explain rounded binary form.
A version of binary form in which second section contains contrasting material (B) as well as a repetition or reprise of the A section.

||: A :|| ||: B A :||

Describe the term for when, at the end of a piece in the minor mode, the 3rd of the tonic chord is raised to create a major tonic chord. The idea is to give the ending a greater sense of finality. J.S. Bach used this technique frequently.
Tierce de Picardie or “Picardy 3rd”.