Doctrine of Ethos
Ones ethical character or way of behaving—music has power over people, both emotionally and physically
Describe the status of music in Greek society
It was very important in society, became part of the education system. It was played at significant events. To be culturally accepted, you needed to be versed in music
Father of the science of acoustics, believed numbers were the key to everything, including music. He recognized the numerical relationships of musical intervals.
the most revered authority on music in the Middle Ages, established 3 types of music—music of cosmos, people, and instruments/voice
The prescribed body of texts to be spoken or sung and ritual actions to be performed in a religious service. Includes introductory prayer, gospel (teaching), and communion
Consisting of a single unaccompanied melodic line.
Gregorian Chant
Also known as plainchant, comes from broadening meaning of text, from Pope Gregory who was standardizing liturgy
Office (ie Divine Office or Canonical Hours)
Series of prayers and meditations members of monasteries and convents structured their day around.
A musical work setting the texts of the ORDINARY of the Mass, typically KYRIE, GLORIA, CREDO, SANCTUS, and AGNUS DEI.
List the individual parts of the Ordinary of the Mass
Kyrie *Gloria *Credo * Sanctus * Agnus Dei * Ite, missa est
List the individual parts of the Proper of the Mass
*Introit *Collects *Epistle *Gradual *Alleluia *Offertory *Communion
List the parts of the office
*Matins *Lauds *Prime *Terce *Sext *Nones *Vespers, then Compline
How is chant classified?
1. Text 2. Manner of performance (antiphonal, responsorial, direct) 3. Text (syllabic, melismatic, neumatic)
Antiphonal singing
Chant sung before and after a song. * used in the OFFICE. Matins includes nine Great Responsories, and several other office services include a Short Responsory.
Responsorial singing
Soloist sings, responded by the choir. * used in the OFFICE. Matins includes nine Great Responsories, and several other office services include a Short Responsory.
Syllabic text setting
One note sung per each syllable of text
Melismatic text setting
A long MELODIC passage sung to a single syllable of text.
Neumatic text setting
1-6 notes sung to each syllable of text
Psalm tone
Series of tones of five elements –antiphon, intonation, tenor, mediation, termination. A MELODIC formula for singing PSALMS in the OFFICE. There is one psalm tone for each MODE.
a manner of performance in which two or more groups alternate
Addition to an existing CHANT, consisting of (1) words and MELODY; (2) a MELISMA; or (3) words only, set to an existing melisma or other melody.
Put text to melisma, edited to jubilus of Alleluia *A category of Latin CHANT that follows the ALLELUIA in some MASSES.
Litugical drama
Chants strum together to teach a scriptural text or concept. *Dialogue on a sacred subject, set to music and usually performed with action, and linked to the LITURGY.
Hildegard of Bingen
Woman who achieved great success as a writer and composer. She composed liturgical dramas, one consisting of 82 songs.
Medieval church modes
a total of 8 modes, they were numbered and grouped in pairs. *Authentic modes: odd numbers ascended from the finalis *Plagal modes: even numbers circled around or went below the finalis.
A system of sightsinging, a pattern of 6 notes (a hexachord)
Guido of Arezzo
Developed solmization, and a system which each joint on one’s hand stood for one of the 20 notes of the system.
Earliest secular song written, named after a fictitious and scurrilous patron, Bishop
Male poet-composers from southern France *Spoke Provencal
Female poet-composers from southern France *Spoke Provencal
Poet-composers from northern France *Spoke langue d’oil, the dialect that became modern French