Metric Modulation
Elliot Carter.Transitions from one tempo and meter to another comprise intermediary stages that share aspects of both. Precise proportional changes in the value of a durational unit result.
Certain aspects of the music are unspecified. 4’33, the listener is invited to hear sounds as music. Blurs boundary’s b/t visual art and music. Earle Brown (b. 1926), Available Forms I (1961) and II (1962) , Penderecki, Threnody , CAGE
Cage technique. Some of the decisions normally made by a composer are left to chance. Such pieces do not convey the composer’s intentions. Cage- Music of Changes for piano
The University as a Patron
allowed composers to fully explore their art w/o having to worry about masses as patrons. The mass media did not HAVE to like the music. It did not have to be accessible.
Prepared Piano
putting stuff in a piano to get desired affects. Various objects, such as pennies, screws, and plastic, are inserted between the strings of a piano. When the keyboard plays, a variety of percussive sounds are projected.
Influence of Asia and Africa
helped lead to minimalism. Helped lead to piece that you had to sit back and experience and THEN judge (ie African dance)
Phase music
developed by Steve Reich, quasi-canonic procedure in which musicians play the same material out of phase with each other.
Third Stream
Some American composers were versed in both jazz and classical music and sought to merge the two in the 1950s and 1960s. Schuller, one of the most successful, called the combination “third stream.”
Total Serialism
composers applied the principles of Schoenberg’s tone rows to parameters other than pitch, such as duration, intensity, and timbre
Musique Concrete
electronic music with recorded sounds. The entire world of sound is potential material for music. The chosen sounds are manipulated and assembled into collages. Tape recorders, which had recently been developed, made it possible to record, amplify, transform, and arrange sounds
Materials are reduced to a minimum and procedures are simplified. Minimalism began as an avant-garde style but became a popular and expressive technique.. Popular in the 60s. Influenced by Rock music, African music, Asian music, tonality, Romanticism.
romantic approach to music using 20th century techniques Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima by Penderecki
which treats all epochs and cultures as equally available as source material. Turns music back to being accessible, not bound to the having music progress