(Dixieland Jazz) Syncopated rhythms with an unbridled spirit that mocks social and musical properties. Improvisation
Featuring syncopated (or “ragged”) rhythms against a regular bass, was a popular style from the 1890s through the 1910s.. This syncopation was apparently derived from the clapping Juba of American blacks, a survival of African drumming and hand clapping.
Swing/Big Band
Duke Ellington- The combination of stylish arrangements with jazz rhythms produced a music that became known as swing. Swing bands exploded in the 1930s; white bands established themselves more easily than African American bands.
A new style of jazz, that emerged in the early 1940s. It was built around virtuosic soloists featured in combos. Focus on solos and virtuoso. Founded by Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie.
The origin is obscure, but it likely stems from rural work songs and other traditions. touches of humour, sense of defiance. Bent notes, syncopations,
Cotton Club
In Harlem, offered alcohol and entertaiment by black performances, catering to white audiences. Here Ellington developed his individual style and gained national recognition.
German Immigrants
A large number of immigrants came to the US in the 1800s. German musicians had a strong commitment to their national traditions. They filled American orchestras and taught all levels of instruction. (Harvard, Yale) German taste dominated American music until WWII.
German speaking protestants from Bohemia in Pennsylvania and North Carolina. They sang arias and Motets in their worship. Imported Church music from Europe. Musically educated immigrants. They collected music libraries and regularly played chamber music and symphonies by European composers.
Sound masses
Term by Varese, Bodies of sound characterized by a particular timbre, register, rhythm, and melodic gesture-moved through musical space.
Cumulative form
Term coined by Ives, thematic development leads to the themes at the end
melody in one key and accompaniment in another, commonly used by Ives.
Scat singing
Use of nonsense syllables in jazz to sound like an instrument. Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong were known for doing this.
Tone clusters
Used by Cowell, Incorporated Irish elements, Asian Themes, American Folk Music, and Heavy Percussion.