American Indian Movement; Organization of urban enclave Indians
Drum Group
(Traditional Lakota Music) Large Northern Plains style playing, men all around 1 drum, each with 1 stick all playing together, various techniques, dancers coordinated with the DRUMMING instead of the singers; 5-15 men
Ghost Dance
Originated in 1870’s by the Piaute Indians who lived in the Great Basin area “Death Valley”; It is significant because it was the end of the Indian wars; its a Diffusion example; and Power of music
Pine Ridge
in 1975; A series of murders; 2 FBI agents were killed amd it ended the American Indian Movement
Social event; happens all over the US; its a weekend long and its mainly about making relatives and networking extending family networks; arbor = where competition happens
Terraced melodic contour
Starts high and descends and continues to do this;
Tom Bee
Pan-tribal: “Beginning.” XIT (Crossing of Indian Tribes) is
a rock band from Albaquerque NM
an activist/musician. As a
teenager Tom Bee undertook a search of his roots and became involved in the Red Power
Movement. He now runs a native record company SOUND OF AMERICA, dedicated to
producing and distributing Native American popular music.
Nonsense syllables
He was a Shaman (a respected man of the community);has a vision that is called the ghost dance, it says if only my people danced and sang in the right way with energy, the white people will leave; was also a medicine man; (Piaute Indian?)
Wounded Knee
South Dakota; sight of massacre was the end of the Indian War; Winter of 1890, 3000 Lakota and Cheyenne gathered for the ghost dance, the whites got scared and called the police; 300 people were massacred in the snow
a drum-like gourd body, a long fretless stick
neck, and three strings (two long melody strings and one short drone string akin to the
“thumb string” on the banjo. Instruments like this are the cousin to the banjo, which has
its roots in the western part of Africa; played in clawhammer style
Bill Monroe
A bluegrass musician in the 1940s that played the mandolin and was in the band Bluegrass boys
Post WWII, 1940’s; Center of Bluegrass is a banjo; single microphone, acoustic, banjo, guitar, fiddle, bass;
Carter Family
First family of country musicians, worked for XERA radio, the Carter Family had a warm presence on the radio and sang about things people could relate tho, this it the beginning of nationalizing country musicTheir
seriousness, religiousness, and “down-home” manner endeared them to American rural
families in the 1930s;rose to fame on the airwaves of border radio
Banjo technique from Africa; Transmitted from person to person (you cant show them by video etc)
Border Radio
During 1930’s; Radio operators went to the Mexican and Texas border broadcasting music in North America;
Dan Emmett
Composed the song Dixie, black faced banjo player in minstrel show, song represntitive of the old south
only recording with a taboreen (playing the back beat)
percussion (bones)
re-creation of a minstrel era performance
composed by Dan Emmett
musical equivalent of the olde confederate flag
Earl Scruggs
3-finger style, not clawhammer (from africa)
very fast and bright sounding, became know as the Scruggs style banjo which is key to bluegrass music
Elevation of the Banjo
the instrument appealing to the upper class and women, fades by 1910, new left in the hands of white southerners; instruction, competition and performances motivated it.
Grand Ol Opry
strictly clean and decent (family values), radio variety show, made Nashville center for music universe ; it was an ongoing phenomenon
Hank Williams
Took on Texas style, was born in Montgomery Alabama, got his singing training in church, in his teens he performed on street corners for money. He was a hard core alcoholic bay a teen, addicted to painkillers in his 20’s. No one would hire him by his late 20’s and he died in his car on his way to a gig in Ohio, introduced everyone to country western music;
Social stereotype of country people;a stereotype to promote a certain type of entertainment; introduced by the recording industry in the 1920’s.
a marketing term that was invented by the marketing company in the 1920’s to sell country music
Jump Jim Crow
This is the minstrel tune that gave its name to the
segregation laws of the southern states following the Civil War. “Jim Crow” was a stock
character in the minstrel shows, a bumbling, comic, simple-minded black man with
exaggerated features, rolling eyes, and comic threadbare clothing. A racist image that
continues to reverberate in American culture.
Minstrel shows;Northern, white, entertainers (way banjo was spread)
2 forms:
1) stories about how nice it is to be a slave in the south fishing
2) humiliating stories, creating comical characters
Stephen Foster
American Composer; wrote music for the Minstrel stage; “Old Susanna”; country music and the banjo