Where did Franz Schubert live most of his life?
In Vienna
What is the name if Schubert’s famous song (Lied; german/dutch “art song”) that was studied?
The Erlking
What is the form of “The Erlking”? What role does the piano play? How are the characters depicted?
The form is known as “through composed” in which the music is very free in form. The piano acts as added imagery such as the horses clopping and the scenery. The characters are depicted by different pitches as portrayed by the singer.
Did Schubert write a collection of songs? What are these called?
Yes, he did. These are called “song cycles” or a collection of lieder with a central theme.
What was Schubert’s last wish? Was it granted?
His last wish was to be buried next to Beethoven and yes, his wish was granted. He was also the torchbearer for Beethoven’s funeral.
What is strophic form?
The opposite of “Through-composed”, it is a musical structure in which all verses/stanzas are sung to the same music.
Does “The Erlking” reflect strophic form?
No, it does not. It is much freer in form- “through composed”
Who did Robert Schumann marry? What did they have in common?
He married Clara Schumann nee Wieck. They were both composers and pianists.
Why was the year 1840 important for Robert and Clara Schumann?
It was the year they were married and subsequently the year Schumann became most inspired (later known as the Year of Song)
What kind of music occupied Schumann;s attention during his year of song?
The lied/lieder
What other musical roles did Schumann play?
He was a critic and a promoter of other musician’s careers.
What is the name of Schumann’s famous song cycle that was studied?
“dichterliebe” (16 songs aka The Poet’s Love)
Why did piano music and songs become so popular during Schumann’s time period (mid 1800’s)
Because it was mostly available for home use. The middle class began to rise and the publishing industry grew to support it, making music more accessible outside of high class balls and chambers.
Where was Frederic Chopin from? Where did he end up for most of his career?
Poland, but she ended up in France for his career.
What kind of music did Chopin mainly focus on during his 39 years of life?
piano music
What are the important genres of Chopin’s music?
1. Nocturnes
2. Mazurkas
How do nocturnes differ from mazurkas?
Nocturnes are lyrical, expressive, and generally tranquil. The melody is song-like and acts as the voice of the piece . The nocturnes emphasize rhythm- specifically tempo robato.

Mazurkas are based on Polish folk dances that are generally light, upbeat, fast dances. They are primarily triple meter.

How is Chopin a nationalist composer?
He is a Polish nationalist in that he often played the mazurkas for his French audience.
Who was Chopin’s lover? Who did Liszt’s illegitimate daughter, Cosima, marry?
George Sand was Chopin’s lover. Cosima married Wagner.
What type of public performance did Chopin prefer? What type did Lizst prefer?
Chopin preferred small, intimate salons when playing his music.

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Lizst on the other hand, preferred huge orchestras with hundred of people. The romantic era rock star.

What was Bedrich Smetana’s nationality?
He was a Czech (Bohemian)musical nationalist.
What was Smetana’s famous musical piece that was studied? What was the genre?
The Moldau- it is a symphonic poem (tone poem) a single movement piece that has a programmatic aspect.
How was “The Moldau” nationlistic?
It was about the river, the culture, the folklore, and the history of the Czech and Bohemian people.
What is the name of the larger collection of works that “The Moldau” is apart of?
Ma Vlast aka My Country: a cycle of 6 symphonic poems.
Who was Smetana mentor to?
Antonin Dvorak
What kind of music by Mendelssohn did we listen to?
Program music: Overature to A Midsummer Night’s Dream. It is an example of absolute music with Mendelssohn’s signature style- crisp, crystal clear music.
Where was Antonin Dvorak from? Who were two of his famous friends?
He was from Central Europe/ Czech/ Bohemia. His friends included Smetana and Brahms.
What is the name of Dvorak’s famous symphony that was studied? Where was it composed?
“From the New World” or “New World Symphony”- It was composed in Spillville Ohio and in New York during his time in America.
How did America shape Dvorak’s symphony no. 9 in E minor?
it is influenced by Native American and African American folk music- many of the melodies and tempos inserted and interpreted though the piece.

It is absolute music that is quasi-programmatic.

What musical instrument did Dvorak introduce into the orchestra?
The triangle.
What way is Dvorak’s symphony “classical”? How is it “romantic”?
Classical- it is in typical sonata form, structured and orderly.

Romantic- Content is romantic as it is focused on the exotic and the folk aspect of America.

Were Johannes Brahms’ symphonies programmatic or absolute music?
He was strictly a composer of absolute music, though his symphonies do sound somewhat programmatic.
What does Absolute Music mean?
It is music that in not explicitly about anything other than music. It does not refer to a specific scene or narrative.
Who promoted Brahms’ career as a young man?
Robert Schumann
Who was he in love with for the majority of his adult life? Did he ever marry her?
He was in love with his friends wife, Clara Schumann. No, they never married.
What is the name of Wilhelm Richard Wagner’s famous four-opera cycle?
It was called the Ring Cycle aka The Ring of the Nibelung.
What is a music drama?
It is Wagner’s version of an opera.
What does Gesamtkunstwerk mean?
Total/complete art work- it is a merging of drama, music, literature, costumes, scenery etc.
What us a Leitmotif and why are they important?
It is a “leading motive” or motives of remniscience. They represent a person, place, thing, idea, or feeling- often one leitmotif will represent one character or element in the opera.
After 1864, who becomes Wagner’s patron and what did he do for him?
King Ludwig II of Bavaria became his patron. He settles all of Wagner’s outstanding debts and help him premiere his first opera
What does “endless melody” mean?
The music never really slows or break- it just keeps going.
Why does Wagner remain a controversial figure?
Adolf Hitler was a huge fan of his music and played it often during his reign. There are also elements of anti-semitism in Wagner’s writings
Who and what is Brunnhilde? Who is her father? Who is her lover? How does she die?
She is a valkyrie in the opera of the Ring Cycle. Her father is Wotan. Her lover is Seigfried. She dies on a pyre of fire.
What can be said of Debussy’s use of orchestra?
Is it the opposite of Wagner. Debussy’s orchestra, which huge, is used sparingly.
What is the name of the poetic movement that is associated with Impressionism?
Song (Sonaric) Poetry
What is Debussy’s tone poem that was covered in class?
Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (opens with a flute)
What are the differences in Ravel and Debussy’s music?
Ravel is much more dissonant in his music than Debussy. Ravel was also more concerned with traditional structures
Who was Ravel?
He was a younger contemporary of Debussy who “spoke his language”
What are some of the specifica musical techniques of the impressionist composer?
sudden changes in modality which obscures tonality; elaborate harmonies; melodies consist of small motivic ideas, echoes, and snippets.
What is primitivism?
the idea of ‘getting back to the basics’
What was Igor Stravinky’s important piece discussed in class? How does it portray primitivism?
The piece for the the russian ballet, The Rite of Spring. The subtitle is what makes it primitive- Scenes from a Pagan Russia. It is about a tribe of people featuring primitive rituals in which a young woman is sacrificed in spring.
What was Igor Stravinsky known for?
He brought on the ‘revitalization of rhythm’- making the tempo and rhythm of the musical genre in important aspect once more by bringing the rhythm to the foreground. He accomplished this through ostenato or rhythmic ideas such as changing meters or asymetrical meters.
What is polyrhythm?
when there are multple meters in one piece of music (ie 1:2 meter followed by a 1:3)
What is polytonality?
When there are multiple tones on different levels.
Who is Arnold Schoenburg?
He is an expressionistic composer who founded the Second Viennese School- music focuses on harmony and atonality.
Created 12-Tone music.
What was Schoenburg’s famous work?
Pierrot Lunaire aka Moonstruck Pierrot: about a sad clown: based on a poem. It is sad and very atonal, dissonant.
What is sprechstimme?
“speech voice” a song that is part speech/ part song.
What is atonality?
A lack of a tonal center.
What is jazz primarily in terms of musical technique?
It is a mixture of dissonance, improvisation, and syncopation.
Call and Response.
What two genres of music make up Jazz? What are their roots?
Blues- from the Mississippi delta after the abolishment of slavery.

Ragtime- light, upbeat dance music

What is syncopation?
The putting/changing emphasis on different accents of music.
Who is Scott Joplin?
The best known performer of ragtime music who was the first to reach international prominence for his genre of music.
Who was Bessie Smith?
She was the Empress of the Blues.
Who was Benny Goodman?
He was the “King of Swing” of the Big Band Era.
Where did jazz originate from?
New Orleans, Louisianna
What is Bebop?
A style of jazz that is frantically paced, dissonant, and highly syncopated.
Who is best known for Bebop?
Charlie “Bird” Parker who played the alto sax.
Who is Dizzy Gillespie?
A famous bebop player known for his latin jazz.
Who was Leonard Bernstein?
The creator of West Side Story.
What is ragtime form?
Similar to sonata rondo:
in which CC is the “trio”
What is 12 bar blues?
Typically contructed as A A B in which the text form, A is repeated and B is a response that can be humorous or ironic in nature to A. When translated into jazz, the three sections are split into 4 bars per stanza and the beginning of the subsequent two bars is a change in key.