What is the difference between 12 note music and serial music?
organized rhythm, dynamics, tone color– not just pitch
During the neoclassical period, why were composers not attracted by Schoenberg’s method
They thought it was too romantic + traditional
What changed the minds of composers in regard to this after 1950
They realized the 12 tone system was a technique.
Why was Webern favored over Schoenberg?
His music had a lean, modern sound
Name some aspects of music that composers wished to include in serial organisation
rhythm, dynamics, tone color, pitch
What is the irony in totally controlled serial music
It seems totally random + chaotic
Give another term for chance music
Aleatory Music
Who is the most famous creator of chance music?
John Cage
What is the title of his silent piece
4′ 33″
In writing chance music, can you see a similarity to Pollock’s Action Painting
Yes– both random & chaotic
Inspired by the development of chance possibilities, Boulez and Stockhausen incorporated this element into their work T/F
What are the rough dates for the beginning of the American minimalist music movement
Mid 1960s
Name 4 minimalist composers.
Riley, Reich, Glass, Adams
What were the non-western influences involved?
African, Indian, Balinese music
Name an opera by Glass.
Einstein on the Beach
Name an opera by Adams
Nixon in China
Who composed an orchestral piece quoting from Mahler’s 2nd Symphony
Luciano Berio
Name a composer of neotonal music
David Del Tredici, George Ruchberg
What does te author say about the unique nature of electronic music
The composer is the performer, he works directly on the sound.
What are microtones?
Intervals smaller than half-step
How does Penderecki imitate electronic sound with conventional instruments
Through tone clusters
What is mixed media
Electronic music w visual elements
Name a work by Babbitt
In which country did Varese spend most of his life?
United States
When was ionisation written?
With whom did Varese work on his Poeme Electronique project
Le Corbusier
What was the surprising musical development in Poland at the end of the 1950s
avant-garde composers emerged
What is the relevance of Stalin to that story
Revolt against the soviet system
What does Threnody mean?
song of mourning
Who is Lorca?
A Spanish Writer
Name a work by Elliott Carter
String Quartet #1
Name a poet he has set to music
Elizabeth Bishop
Name a work by Reich
Violin Phase
What is phasing?
Several identical melodic patterns being introduced simultaneously– going in and out of phase
Where did Reich study drumming?
University of Ghana
What is a gamelan orchestra
Indonesian orchestra- gongs, chimes, xylophones
Name some mallet instruments
vibraphones, crotales, marimba
Name a work by Jonathan Harvey
Ritual Melodies
Who are the 4 main composers mentioned?
La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass
Name the alternative terms for minimal music.
repetitive music, acoustical art, meditative music
In this style, what happens to the musical means?
Extreme reduction of musical means.
He talks of equality in several musical dimensions
timbre, rhythm, pitch
What can be said of the length of the pieces
How many motives are there in drumming?
What influences outside the west are mentioned
Takes from Indian, Balinese, West African music
What is isorhythmic structure?
fixed melodic + rhythmic series are repeated
Who wrote Vexations?
Erik Satie
How many repititions are involved in that work?
What is the duration?
18 hours
There are no sudden transitions in Glass’ music T/F
If chord progressions are involved, do you expect the same sort of processes
that you find in purely melodic works
What is the difference between macro and micro structure in this style
macro= transformative micro = repetitive
How does the author describe traditional classical music?
Repitition used in narrative and teleological frame
As in traditional classical music what does he say about memory
As you listen, you refer back + remember
What does he mean by restoration of tonality?
emphasis on rhythmic pulse
Who is influenced by Gagaku music?
La Monte Young
What has replaced the concept of a work according to the author
Notion of process
In reference to which composer is the term eternal music referring to
A musical process defines…
determines note to note details and overall form
Who was interested to find what musical feelings are conveyed by intervals
Who talks about “vibrating motionless trance”
Who said “if people don’t get carried away by my music it is a failure”
What according to Boulez was the atttude that Berg and Webern had to Debussy?
They didn’t admire Debussy very much. Thought he was too “free”
What does he say about the main works of Debussy?
The inventiveness, ingenuity, and spontaneity of Debussy’s works were very necessary . Can’t be constructive all the time, gotta be descriptive too.
What does he mean by the metaphor of the “two lungs” a musician must have?
Spontanaeity + construction
What does he say about how pitches are transmitted in Balinese music and African music?
Transmitted by wood (african) + metal (balinese). Sound shouldn’t be added superficially
What does he say about Derive III
Its in his head and he hopers he has time to finish it. will use scheme of Derive I and just expand/ complicate it
What is his point about deduction when composing?
Agrees w maher, the music composes/ directs the composer, but composer must remain in control over the material. this exchange is deduction
What does he say about being confronted with material he composed when he was still young?
He likes it– chance for reinvention
What does he remark about Webern’s ring when he had to conduct it?
How does he describe his early work notations?
Strongly organized but free
What does he say about Liebowitz
He was dry and unimaginative with his 12 tone system
How does he contrat him with Messiaen?
He didn’t agree but thought he was inventive
What does he say about accidents during the process of composing?
He enjoys them if they make him go another way
What comparison does he draw with archaeology?
How does Cage compare the sound of traffic to music?
feelings vs. random spontaneous sounds
What does he say about what people expect when they listen to music?
They expect it to be more than listening– inner sound
What does he say about his attitude to sounds?
Just loves sounds– doesn’t need them to be anything other than what they are
What anecdote does he tell about Kant?
Music and laughter: give us deep pleasure and dont have to mean anything
Which is the sound experience he prefers to all others?
What does he say about listening to Beethoven and Mozart
They are always the same; traffic is always different
If Reich is not writing music with a text, what is his first question
What instruments is he writing for
What does he say about ‘inventing my own ensemble’
beginning of the beginning of the piece
What for him is the most difficult part of composing a piece
Getting started
What change came to his work in 1976?
He started to map out his music harmonically
Previous to how does he describe the texture of his works
Short melodic module
In designing the form of his pieces what composer does he mention as being influential on him
bela bartok
What keys does he like working in?
D Major and B minor
What does he say about the Dominant of the Western scale
he loves to use it
Why did reporters assume he might compose something about 911
He made differenbt trains and worked in documentary work
What did he do following from that time musically
Focused on writing music for instrument and voice
What does he mean by the metaphor of throwing the right logs onto the fire
He has to enjoy what he is doing or no one will like his music
What does he propose as an alternative to the polarity of pop classical
Notated and non notated
What is his problem with working with rock musicians
They cant all read music
What does he ay about his attitude to music before 1750
He has learned more from music before 1750 than after
What is his attitude about romantic music
Thinks the composers are great but doesn’t learn from them
How does he compare stravinsky to Wagner
He thinks stravinksky makes more sense tonality
What was retored to music by Bartok and Stravinsky
energy in the tonal system
what does he mean by schoenberg read it correctly
that tone is important
What was his solution to writing 12 note music
never invert, transpose, retrograde the mode, just repeat row n row over and over again
What does he mean when he compares his scores to Baroque ones?
It is dynamic
How does he sisdestep Ford’s question about emotion in his music
Talks about dynamics– doesnt think about emotion in his music
What is his answer to the question about whether there is something specifically American about minimalism
What did he add to Terry Riley’s in C
A pulse.
What part of Cage’s music does not interest him?
His music past 1950
What is his influence on Reich
showed you can entertain an audience even while staying on keys for a long duration
What is the influence from Motown
music tension with no relief
What was the influence from Organum
the importance of long notes
He ays that 1960s harmony is back but with what difference
Harmonic rhythm slows down to a pace t heard in the west
What musical texture in his work goes all the way back to it’s gonna rain
How has he handled writing for the Kronos Quartet
Made unison canons where they form a counterpointal web where you dont really know who is playing what