Richard Wagner
one of the most influential figures in the history of film music; termed the total artwork as the Gesamtkunstwerk
the central role of the director, the creative force that forges all the artistic elements into one principal goal
the revolutionary concept of the total artwork; termed by Richard Wagner
first created by Richard Wagner; musical themes that represent various characters and aspects of the story
causal plot
contains: exposition, complications, climax, and resolution/denouement
episodic plot
rather than moving through a series of complications, this type of plot presents a succession of events that do not build directly from one to the other; stories involving travel frequently have this structure
can interrupt the chronological flow of the story, bringing new insights to the current situation
a story that maintains a strict chronological timeline
a plot that incorporates either logical or illogical jumps of time
epic story
tend to have a long string of complications that lead to a number of climaxes, while conveying a larger story of a person’s life or a major event
principal character; it is primarily through his or her eyes and experiences that we follow a story
principal adversary; generates a conflict that sets a series of complications in motion
refers to both the location and thetime framein which a story takes place; can have an important influence on a narrative
period film
a movie that is set in a defined historical era; suggests attention to details of costumes, sceney, and manners
a category based on similar stories and other conventions; narrative films can be organized into these
the art of a cinematographer taking moving pictures
the visual element in film; borrowed from the theater; encompasses aspects such as lighting, costumes, and decor, the relationship of these elements to each other, and how they are photographed
point of view (POV)
the perspective of the camera eye
omniscient point of view
the view that a narrative film is usually shot through; the camera moves at the will of the director; we are allowed to see the action as an observer, and hence often know more about a situation than do the principal characters
subjective point of view
when the cinematographer lets us see through the eyes of one of the characters; Jaws (the underwater perspective of the shark)
the final stage of the creation of a film; the film is given its final shape through the editing process and the addition of sound effects and music
the shots created during production are joined together
an uninterrupted length of film
the precise moment when one shot ends and another begins
the alternation of shots from two or more sequences
refers to a section of film comprising a number of brief shots edited together in order to show a condensed series of events
a succession of pitches that is heard as a unit; usually somewhat memorable; can also use the word “tune” or describe it as being tuneful;
a melody that moves primarily in small intervals;
a melody that contains a significant number of large intervals
ends of phrases; can be incomplete, independent, or questioning; equivalent of punctuation marks
the melodic units that rests create; give the singer a chance to breathe
melodies in vocal style with limited ranges, conjunct motion, and regularly recurring phrases
a small melodic idea that can serve as part of a larger melody or stand on its own
a melody that recurs within a given work, usually with special significance to the drama
the relationship of a melodic line to other musical material in a given passage
type of texture; single dominant melody with accompaniment or music that seemingly has no dominant tune; found a lot in film music
the presentation of a single melodic line without any other musical material; not common in film music;
a type of texture; can also simply be called counterpoint; the presence of two or more equal melodies
a type of counterpoint; when a song is played in a round; most often encountered when a brief musical motive is played alternately by two or more instruments
when the imitative counterpoint suggests a chase
the element of music that is created when two or more pitches are produced at the same time
harmonic term; the sound of three or more pitches at any given moment in a musical work
harsh and disturbing; created when the pitches clash with one another
the distance between two pitches, whether they are played simultaneously or in succession
the element of music dealing with time
diminished fifth or augmented fourth; this interval creates great tension both melodically and harmonically in traditional Western music
major and minor
two seven-note scales which use a combination of whole and half steps
the speed at which pulses are heard
the pattern when beats often occur in regular patterns or strong and weak pulses
when the melodic material contradicts the given pulse by creating accents on weak beats or between beats
the technical term for the color or tone quality produced by voices, instruments, and various combinations of the two
when composers initially write their music at the piano and then assign the various musical ideas to voices and instruments
someone who specializes in orchestration; can provide valuable assistance to a composer by suggesting possible instrumental combination for a given passage and by completing the time-consuming job of writing out individual orchestral parts according to the direction of the composer
electronic instruments
the earliest electronic instruments heard in film music are the theremin and ondes martenot; produce oscillating pitches that create an eerie, unreal sound
historical instruments
effective in suggesting an earlier time period; the most distinctive antique-sounding instrument is the harpsichord
ethnic instruments
can perform in a style indigenous to their region, but they also may be combined with Western instruments to suggest another culture while maintaining a musical style that is familiar to Western audiences
when the music contains a series of tunes from the film; common in musicals
meant to precede the beginning of the film
immediately precedes the resumption of the film; functions as an overture for the second part
source music (diegetic music)
heard as part of the drama itself; the characters in the film are able to hear it;
underscoring (non-diegetic music)
has no logical source in the drama itself; creates a general mood and guides us emotionally and psychologically through the course of a film
a passage of underscoring from its entrance to its end
wall-to-wall music
when music plays almost continuously in a film
borrows a melody from another source, and the film composer provides it with an original setting suited to the film
when one can observe a clear and consistent relationship between a musical idea and its onscreen counterpart;
thematic transformation
helps to create variety and gives support to dramatic situations; a leitmotif can be altered when it recurs during a film
borrows a complete passage from another source, including both melody and accompaniment
compilation score
in the silent film era, scores that are a pastiche of borrowed music;
adapted score
in the sound era, film music that is substantially borrowed
eclectic score
a score that’s weird and makes no fucking sense
running counter to the action
when the music depicts a mood that deliberately does not match what is happening on the screen
Mickey Mousing
when the music is too obvious; like accenting every step of someone walking 
Thomas Edison
produced a commercially viable phonograph and met with Muybridge in 1888; introduced the Kinetoscope in 1891; opened the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894; Unveiled the Kinetophone in 1895; Premiered the Vitascope 1896; Invented the phonograph in 1876
Eadweard Muybridge
Exhibited the Zoopraxiscope in Stanford’s home in 1879; met with Edison in 1888; leading photographer of the American West; placed 12 cameras at specified intervals next to a racetrack to show that horses do completely leave the ground while they run
exhibited by Muybridge in Stanford’s home in 1879; a projection device
W.K.L. Dickson
was the principal moving force behind the development of moving pictures at the Edison lab; created the first studio, a small building called the Black Maria, directed the early films, and even appeared as an actor in several of them
Black Maria
the first studio which was created by Dickson
first introduced by Edison in 1891;
Muybridge introduces the Zoopraxiscope which dealt with series photography (horse photography experiment)
George Eastman creates “roll film” which were sensitized strips of paper; these replaced glass plates
Edison produced the phonograph
Eastman introduce roll film made out of celluloid; transparent; could project light through
kinetoscope with an attached record player; debuted in 1895 and came equipped with both a viewer and earphones
Edison introduced the Kinetoscope
Edison opened the first kinetoscope parlor
Edison introduced the kinetophone which was a kinetoscope with a record player attached and the Lumiere brothers presented their first films with music
When did the Lumiere brothers come up w the cinematographe?
28 December 1895
Paris; first motion picture; acc. by live music; great success
What was the first narrative film? 
Trip to the Moon (1902)
What was the first film with crosscuts? 
Great Train Robbery (1903)
academy of motion pictures arts and sciences
founded by Louis B. Mayer in 1927; founded on the concept of film as a total artwork, dependent on a large # of individual artists
Louis and Auguste Lumiére
created the cinematographe in 1894 which was a device that was capable of taking moving pictures, printing film, and projecting images onto a screen
a device which was capable of taking moving pictures, printing film, and projecting images onto a screen; could be taken outdoors because it only weighted 12 lbs. 
Max Skladanowsky
his works preceeded those of the Lumiere brothers, but they are often overlooked; on Nov. 1, 1895, he projected films before a paying public
Edison’s projector which he invented after he abandoned the idea of the peephole of the kinetoscope
Georges Melies
young magician; most famous work was A Trip to the Moon (1902); he was characterized by elaborate sets and costumes, fantastic stories, and lots of beautiful girls
Edwin Porter
director of The Great Train Robbery in 1903
small shops that showed films exclusively, usually for the admission price of a nickel; first nickelodeon was established in 1905 in Pittsburgh
ballyhoo music
when the music was not played in the theater, but rather in front of the shop, where the volume would be boosted in order to attract attention
song films
films that were created to illustrate a popular song that would be played or sung with the film or slide show; it was common for these to alternate with narrative films in a nickelodeon
film in 1908
L’Assassinat du Duc de Guise
film in 1912
Queen Elizabeth
film in 1915
The Birth of a Nation
films in 1916
Intolerance and The Fall of a Nation
film in 1919
Broken Blossoms
D.W. Griffith
generally regarded as the single most important figure in American film; first great artist in the field; directed The Birth of a Nation
United Artists
a corporation formed in 1919 by D.W. Griffith, Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, and Charlie Chaplin; the first film under this umbrella was Broken Blossoms
Wurlitzer Organ
America’s largest organ maker; began producing instruments designed for movie theaters; started adding different devices so that irregular sounds could be made
compilation score
action/adventure films
one of the main genres of music; an example would be James Bond movies
the first films were just capture of everyday things; example: The Kiss by WKL Dickson and Edison and the Serpentine Dances
in 1928, Mortimer Mouse was in Steamboat Willy; soon became Mickey Mouse; first and only animation until Snow White in 1937
formed in 1914; charges theaters 10 cents per seat per year for composer royalties
created by the mixture of drama, music, and dance; successful effort of combining divergent arts
someone in a story; protagonists and antagonists
closing credits
the credits at the end of a film; giving credit to those who took part in the making;
comedy films;
a genre of film; example: Mash
very similar to actualities; short films depicting parts of everyday life
dramatic films
a genre of film; example: King’s Speech
flim editing
postproduction stuff; decide which shots will be chosen; put in cuts and crosscuts
film genres
action/adventure, animation, comedy, drama, horror, musical, romance, mystery, and science fiction
Max Winkler
pioneer in compiling music for films
William Axt
the music director for the Capitol Theater; worked on many of MGM’s greatest silent films; ushered MGM into the sound era almost single-handedly; directed “Don Juan” which was the first film with synchronized sound (1926)
Giuseppe Becce
compiled the kinobibliothek in 1919
Busby Berkeley
created the backstage story, effective humor, and elaborate dance routines for the movie “42nd Street”
Joseph Carl Breil
America’s first significant film composer; composed the music for “Queen Elizabeth” in 1912 in addition to severl of DW Griffith’s films such as Birth of a Nation and Phantom of the Opera
Erno Rapee;
wrote the first film tune called “Charmaine” in 1926 ;(in movie called What Price Glory)
1928; first full-length film to use the sound on film method; won an academy award in 1928 also (at the first academy awards)
could record sound on disk and mechanically sync w/ film; disk could only be played 20 times before it had to be replaced with a new disk
Steamboat Willy
first cartoon character (Mortimer Mouse) appeared in this film in 1928
Sam Fox Moving Picture Music Volumes
appeared between 1913 and 1914; 70 original compositions in 4 volumes
“Birth of a Nation”
premiered with a score by Breil in 1915; super controversial due to racist nature of the film (KKK)
“A Trip to the Moon”;
first narrative film; by George Melies in 1902; had 15 scenes
Lumiere brothers present first films with music
Edison introduces the Vitascope
A Trip to the Moon by George Melies
Edwin Porter’s The Great Train Robbery
Harry Davis opens first nickelodeon in Pittsburgh
There were approx. 3000 nickelodeons in the US
There were approx. 8000 nickelodeons in the US; first original film score commissioned
NYC’s Capitol Theatre (largest in the US) employed 6 organists
The Sam Fox Moving Picture Volumes appear
ASCAP is formed and charges theaters for use of music
The Kinobibliothek (kinothek) is published in Berlin
Motion Picture Moods for Pianists and Organists appears
Don Juan, the first film with synchronized sound, premieres
The Jazz Singer, the first feature-length “talkie” premieres
Charlie Chaplin
directed the last great silent films: City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1935)
Louis B Mayer;
founded the academy of motion picture arts and sciences in 1927
Roxy theater
1927; movie palace; NYC’s largest (6200 seats)
Camille Saint Saens 
commissioned the first original film score (L’assassinat…) in 1908
motion picture moods for pianists and organists
several hundred pages of music; by Rapee; 1924
1919; published in Berlin; had music that could be used in movies;
The Great Train Robbery;
1903; by Eadward Porter; first movie with crosscuts
The Jazz Singer
1927; recording sounds on records and syncing was used; 25% “talkie”; used the vitaphone system; first time food was used in a movie;
L’Assassinat du Duc de Guise 
used the first original film score by Saint Saens which was commissioned in 1908
Rosa Rio
was told she would not succeed in music; studied classical music at Oberlin; Orson Wells’ first organist; used to have to play to a film she was seeing for the first time sometimes;
kinetoscope parlor;
opened by Edison in 1894
produced by Edison in 1888
movietone sound system;
developed by GE for Fox studios; the “sound on film” method
first hit tune from a film; “What Price Glory”; 1926; Rapee;
City Lights;
one of the last great silent films; 1931; by Charlie Chaplin
Don Juan;
1926; the first film with synchronized sound premieres, but still no dialogue; by William Axt
Lights of New York
significant film of 1928 (same year as Steamboat Willie); incorporates both underscore and sound music, including an extended live musical number
Camille Saint Saens;
commissioned the first original film score in 1908 which was used in L’assassinat…
Louis Silvers
composed music for DW Griffith and was later awarded the first music Oscar for his contributions to One Night of Love (1934)
Harry Stafford
created some of the synchronized music which was presented in silent scenes
Carl Stallings 
joined the disney studio and created the music for many of the early catoons 
Max Steiner
child prodigy; scored over 300 films; won 3 academy awards and was nominated for 15 other Oscars; King Kong, Casablanca, among tons of others 
King Vidor 
directed films in both the silent and sound eras; one of the uncredited directors of The Wizard of Oz (1939)