equal temperment
adjusted or tempered the mathematically "pure" intervals within the octave to equalize the distance between the adjacent tones

released through melody the emotional tension accumulated in the course of action

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-highly emotional

-what audiences wait for


large scale drama that is sung

-combines vocal and instrumental music with poetry and drama


a work for one or more solo vocalists with instrumental accompaniment

based on secular text


a large scale dramatic genre with a religious or biblical text performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra

not staged or costumed

an instrumental form based on the opposition between two dissimilar bodies of sound
solo concerto

a concerto for a solo instrument and an accompanying instrumental group

violin used frequently


concerto grosso

opposition between a small group of instruments, the concertino, and a larger group, the tutti or ripieno

"the fire and fury of the Italian syle"



returns again and again in alternation with the episodes, which often feature the solo violin

solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style
a contrapuntal composition in which a single theme pervades the entire fabric , entering in one voice and then in another
program music
instrumental music endowed with literary or pictoral associations, especially popular in the 19th century

-a time of turbulent change in politics arts and science

-religious wars

-music served as religion
-absolute monarchy

-age or discovery