When was the Medieval ages?
476-1450; almost 1,000 years
When was the Renaissance Ages?
What is Liturgy?
set order of services, structure of each service in the church.
What is Syllabic?
One note per syllable
What is Neumatic?
2 or 3 notes per syllable
What is Melismatic?
many notes per syllable
What is a plainchant or Gregorian Chant?

  • monophonic – one syllable per note.
  • nonmetric – beat irregular or not easy to find.
  • Latin text.
  • Pope Gregory organized music.

What was the Church language?
Chant consisted of what?

  • Oral transmission.
  • neumes – early notation
  • modes – scale patterns 

What are the two types of music in the daily Mass?

  • proper – changed with the season by the calender.
  • ordinary – stayed the same all year round.

What is polyphonic?
two or more voices combined into music.
What is the earliest form of polyphonic?
Where was the first organum performed?
in the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris
Where was secular music performed?
in courts for the King and Queen
What is troubadours?
France south
What is trouveres?
France north
What is Minnesingers?
Germany music
What is chivalry?
idealized love songs
Secular songs were sung what?
monophonically, with improvised accompaniment.
What is a patron?
sponsorship to play music. Most came from the church.
What is morality play?
a drama meant to teach “good values”
What is a cantus firmus?
a fixed melody.
What is chansons?
French music
What is motet?
French music, the most important form of early polyphonic music.
Who was Hildegard von Bingen?
A German woman composer who composed religious poetry with music and came up with morality play.
Who was Leonin?
was the first person who used polyphonic and the earliest composer of organum.
Who was Perotin?
followed Leonin, but added 3-4 vioces to organum.
Who was Gaullaume de Machaut?

  • French composer
  • a cleric and courtier (who works for the church and the court).
  • He wrote motets, chansons, and wrote the first polyphonic setting of the Mass Ordinary

What is the difference between Medieval and Renaissance motets?

  • Medieval Motet = mostly secular.
  • Renaissance Motet = mostly sacred.  

What is a cappella mean?
singing with no instruments
What is word painting?
notes and rhythm matched to words of a song.
What is cantus firmus?
fixed melody, used as the basis for a new composition.
What does vernacular mean?
language of a country
Early Masses were based on what type of music?
Gregorian chant and cantus firmus
What is a requiem?
Mass for the dead
What consisted of the Renaissance Motet?

  • Single Latin text
  • Marian motets (Virgin Mary)
  • Written for 3, 4, or more voices.  

What is the Protestant Reformation?
an up-rise against the church
What was the counter reformation?
the reaction of the church to the protestant reformation.
What consisted of the Council of Trent?

  • Corruption of chant by embellishment.
  • Use of certain instruments in religious services.
  • Incorporation of popular music in Masses.
  • Secularism of music.
  • Irreverent attitude of church musicians.  

What is madrigal?
Italian music
What made up professional musicians?
courts and civic functions (people who had money).
Where did merchant-class amateurs play music?
They played and sang at home.
Women studied music as part of their being what?
well educated and higher class
Chanson were what type of French song?
What was the chief form of Renaissance?
Italian madrigal
Italian madrigals where what?
short poem of lyric or reflective nature.
Englans adopted what type of music?

  • the Italian madrigal.
  • England lightened and shortened it in style.
  •  Section included syllables fa-la-la

Who was Josquin?


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  • Milan, Cardinal Ascanio Sforza
  • Ferrara, Ercole d’ Este
  • Rome, papal choir

Made sacred and secular music.


Who was Martin Luther?
Was the Protestant Reformation leader.
Who was Palestrina?

  • known for Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Pope Marcellus.
  • Italian composer, organist, and choirmaster.
  • Sistine Chapel Choir to Pope Julius III
  • Wrote mostly sacred music.  

Who was John Farmer?

  • Active in 1590s in Dublin, Ireland.
  • Organists and master of Choirboys at Christ Church.
  • Later moved to England. 

What was Hildegard known for?
Alleluia, O virga mediatrix
What was Machaut known for?
Puis qu’en oubli
What was Josquin known for?
Ave Maria
What was Palestrina known for?
Pope Marcellus Mass, “Gloria”
What was Farmer known for?
Fair Phyllis