Chief Executive Officer or president, often the strong entrepreneur who started the label and had the vision it reflects
major label
record distribution companies owned by larger multi-national corporations that control the production, distribution, and marketing of records
independent label
conservative (fiscally/corporate structure) record companies that tend to be closer to the consumer and in touch with current trends; ex. A&M Octone
specialty label
a kind of independent label, often classical
artist and repertoire; main concern is finding and signing new talent
artist relations
deals with the artist in relation to the public
creative services
under the marketing department in a record label, responsible for designing and producing any materials necessary to execute a marketing campaign (includes posters, album artwork, etc.)
National Academy Recording Arts and Sciences, the organization behind the Grammys; membership is limited to active people in the industry, associate membership is available to those indirectly involved
the SALE of the unauthorized duplication of prerecorded product (therefore, copyrighted product)
UNAUTHORIZED MANUFACTURE and distribution of copies of prerecorded product that are packaged to look like the original product
the sale of product CREATED from the unauthorized recording of live or broadcast performances (spontaneous decision rather than a planned decision)
National Association of Recording Merchants
the remaining inventory of recorded material once demand drops and the manufacturer ceases production
imprint of another (more major) label; importance for collectors
vanity label
bear an imprint that gives the impression of artist ownership or control, in reality they only have more say in the packaging
turn-table hit
a recording that gets good airplay but people don’t walk into stores to buy it
money or other compensation illicitly given to DJs in return for playing particular recordings
– Alan Freed was prosecuted for accepting bribery/practicing payola
minimum advertised pricing; has been used by labels to protect smaller retailers from a rapid erosion in market shares
playlist adds
an addition of a new recording to a radio station playlist, or a new entry to a best seller chart
when a CD is clear or clean of any markings they would have if they were for promotional use only; because promos are altered or labeled differently because they are not for public sale (a copy for purchase)
point of purchase; POP items at the register might that include posters, banners, stand-ups , etc.
rereleases, ex. compilation records
stock keeping unit; an important inventory term as there are thousands of unique products
record labels can offer co-op advertising, or pre-released exclusivity to selected retailers
racks at the ends or aisles or prominent locations in a store where a SKU will be on display as sale price, sometimes involving a theme
an independent merchant who pays a rental fee/commission to maintain and sell inventory within a retail store (often assembles POP items)
advertising or promotion that induces the customers to buy
advertising that induces retailers or distributers to order merchandise to put on sale
promotional items given away
the software based protocol that enabled recordings to be compressed into files easily transferrable over the internet
peer to peer; direct sharing of information from person (computer) to person (computer)
Digital Millenium Copyright Act (1998)
noted for establishing a mechanism for securing copyrighted music online
Athens Agreement
(1989) specified that consumer digital audio technology (DAT) machines being manufactured with serial copy management system (SCMS) a technology that denies more than one digital copy of any recording
Pro Tools
software-based professional audio platform or program; originally manufactured by Digidesign
Apple computer’s entrance in 2002 to the digital music arena with iTunes, the online music store
Digital Rights Management; part of the RIAA and their attempt to stop the flow of illegally downloaded music
Internet Service Provider
social networking
perhaps the most significant digital phenomenon of recent years, music is often an important part of this social interaction
collaborative filtering
steering consumers toward more music they might enjoy based on what they already know they like
after markets
secondary markets of performance, for example, home videos, theatrical showings, exhibitions, etc.
after markets
secondary markets of performance, for example, home videos, theatrical showings, exhibitions, etc.
after markets
secondary markets of performance, for example, home videos, theatrical showings, exhibitions, etc.
a variation on traditional cable (paid TV); PPV delivers a specific program to cable subscribers for a separate fee
Direct Broadcast Satellite
story board
a visual representation measuring perhaps 24×36″ that shows rough drawings of a sequence of events scheduled to occur on screen
video commissioner
the person in charge of overseeing video assignments for a record label
interactive programming
a two-screen experience where viewers use PCs with interactive access to do, for example, quizzes, voting contests, etc.
Digital Video Recorder
a 1-3 page script of a director’s vision for the video they will direct
library service
whole catalogs of prerecorded music; you can purchase entire catalogs or parts (needle drops)
the “Hollywood Sound”; the term for string orchestral players who understand jazz phrasing and the style of beautiful tone, romantic expressiveness, perfect intonation, and entirely relaxed playing that is found in Hollywood’s older films
a sforzando chord, a suddenly loud, unexpected chord
click track
the “click” is a steady beat that may be sped up/slowed down depending on a film’s needs enabling a composer to sync music to film with mathematical precision
frame click tempo
the formula of dividing the frames per second in a film by the metronome tempo for synchronization
to place recorded music behind a movie or TV program
Society Motion Picture and Television Engineers
sound synchronization
matching sounds, songs, and actions to a rhythmic beat or timed sequence with filmed actions
temp tracks
temporary tracks; a mock-up of the music or score to come
scoring sound stage
a large cavernous facility where feature film music is usually recorded
to add new recorded material to the original medium
music editor
aka cutter; the person who assembles a temporary music score during the filming process
identifying the turning points in film; for example, the mood changes and where or where not to put music
a wrong note in the copied parts/or a note played incorrectly
first-call musician
the first choice musician to be engaged in a project by an orchestra contractor because of their reliability and skill
package deal
to engage the hiring of all those involved in scoring (composer, musicians, conductor, etc.)
media buyer
person who works for an agency and purchases time
creative fee
a one-time/one-piece of material fee sometimes charged by a composer for the creation of a commercial spot
selling a product from first-hand knowledge
needle drop
a brief recorded passage (orchestral or sound effects) drawn from a transcription library that a producer uses for a dramatic program or broadcast commercial
*above the line (budget item)
creative fees, such as price of talent or composer
*below the line (budget item)
other expenses, non-talent, ex. studio rentals, scale payments to union artists (back-up musicians), etc.
in a 60 second spot/ad, the parts of a commercial; the front establishes a tone for the commercial, the bridge is the middle part where the tone is less full in orchestration, the tag returns the music to full sound
commercial bed
used by ad agencies and broadcasters to describe the music background for commercial advertisements
in advertising, campaign slogan or concept
lift (music)
similar to needle drop; usually a 10 second snippet from a 60 second spot that were initially scored in anticipation of a short section being lifted from the full length commercial
aka broadcast commercial/ad
the crowding together by broadcasters of many short spots, like 7-10 seconds, during a commercial break
canned track
prerecorded segment of music that hasn’t been written for the particular work for which it may be used
a string of spots
overdubbing (same as dubbing)
added sounds to previously recorded tape
book (in theatre)
the script, whether musical or non-musical
low-budget, often experimental, yet professional theatre produced in NYC venues, but outside of the Time Square theatre district
proscenium stage
the traditional stage opening resembling a picture frame, with the stage often projecting slightly out of the arch opening
theatrical property
a novel or dramatic play that’s the basis for a musical
royalty pool
the pool is a complicated method of figuring that assigns a certain number of percentage points to each individual involved in a theatrical production, with a minimum guarantee per point plus an allotment of the profits
League of Resident Theaters
approved production contract
the document that contains the standards and procedures for the Dramatists’ Guild of America
subsidiary rights
once a musical has finished its first run, the other opportunities to exploit the production may be found in movie rights, stock, amateur rights, touring, etc.
business music
wired music/environmental music
foreground/background music
foreground: designed to stimulate the work environment and increase productivity/background: intended to go unnoticed
extra musical service
what business music provides by staying on the edge of consciousness
production blanket
pertaining to production libraries, allows for the unlimited use of music in one production for a capped/flat fee
production music library
companies that offer music and sound effects that are original rather than covers/recreations of already existing songs in music
music therapy
the prescribed use of music by a qualified person to effect positive changes in the psychological, cognitive, or social functioning of individuals with health or educational problems
audio programmer (T/F)
aka video game scorer, who is someone who creates music as background for video games
a business-minded person who starts their business to go it alone
a person who works in a particular professional career, for example teaching, law, medicine, etc., but does not have all the necessary degrees for full certification
Doctor of Musical Arts
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Education
terminal degree
the highest degree necessary or recommended for a particular career
music copyist
a person who works at transcribing music into written form including creating instrumental parts from complex musical compositions
air checks (for DJ employment)
a recording of an actual broadcast by a DJ with most of the music edited out with only a few seconds of voice to enable the auditor to hear how a performer/DJ gets in and out of the music; should be accompanied with resume (like a demo)
clips file (music critic or journalist)
a composite of a writer’s work to enable a perspective employer to evaluate a person’s writing style and abilities
comp style
an improvised piano accompaniment often characterized by syncopated blocked chords
small business administration; gov’t program that helps entrepreneurs start a business
sole proprietorship
a form of business where the sole owner is personally responsible for any financial losses
an association of two or more persons in a voluntary legal agreement; a limited partnership has restricted liability and a joint venture is good for short-term business enterprises
an association of two or more persons in a voluntary legal agreement; a limited partnership has restricted liability and a joint venture is good for short-term business enterprises
an entity; management has more money to work with and there is a diversity of talents
Gantt Chart
an organizational tool to provide a clear outline of the steps needed to complete a project within a given time frame
4 P’s
Product, Price, Place, Promotion- marketing tool
balance sheet
how much a company is worth at any given time
income statement
shows where the money came from, what was spent, and how much money is left over after expenses
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
a needs satisfaction model to try to explain what motivates people’s behavior
doing business as
general partnership
established when all partners involved carry on the business as co-owners
fictitious firm name
same as trade name
the use of an informal group of contacts within a group of people who share common interests, concerns, professional activities, etc.
serial career
moving from job to job because of the nature of the profession
job vs. career
a job is a job, but a career is more likely an ongoing series of related jobs that add up to an employment sequence
combination career
combining careers, whether related or unrelated
Canadian Content; refers to the regulation of Canadian musical influence in Canadian music works
Foundation to Assist Canadian Talent On Records
Society Of Composers, Authors, and Publishers of Canada
Canadian Broadcasting Channel
Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission
Canadian Musical and Production Rights Agency
International Federation of the Phonographic Industry
sound carrier
taken to mean any medium that transmits sounds
Cannes Accord
the result of a dispute in the mid-1990s between the major international record companies and the European copyright collection societies; publishers won a reduction in the society’s commission rates on mechanical royalties
neighboring rights
aka sound recording performance rights/related rights; the rights in a work that don’t belong to the author, 3 general categories: performers, producers, broadcasters
Access to Music Charge; concept that maintains that the only viable means of monetizing from the online music user is at the user’s point of access through an ISP
Institute of Popular Music
held in Cannes, the leading worldwide music publishers convention
International Intellectual Property Association
US-based lobbying coalition of American copyright-based groups
World Intellectual Property Organization (a UN organization administering copyright conventions)
moral rights
the right of an author to be properly identified and to insist that any editing of work preserves its integrity without alteration, distortion, or mutilation of the work
public domain
material, such as music or any other intellectual property, available for unrestricted use on which the copyright or patent has expired (or doesn’t have a copyright)
reciprocal treatment
foreign authors will only get the level of copyright protection granted in their own country as per the Berne Convention
first fixation (T/F)
refers to the location of the WTC where the recording was created
WTC/WIPO Copyright Treaty
a special agreement under the Berne Convention providing additional protection for authors when their works are used on the internet and via other digital services, including downloading and streaming
World Trade Organization
World Performances and Phonogram Treaty; extended similar protection for neighboring rights owners in relation to the internet and other digital platforms
to rewrite or amend statutes or regulations so that they are in agreement or in accordance with other statutes or treaties