Done for profit
Someone who combines the work
Demonstration Recordings
Memorable lyric or passage
Lead Sheet
Piece of music that only has lead sheets, melody, and text without the accompaniment
Royalties payed by manufacturer to the owner of a music copyright
National Association of Schools of Music
Song Doctor
Fixes songs, writer who rearranges songs to make them more suitable
Songwriters Guild of America
Assists members by helping as lobbyists and providing general assistance to writers
Split Publishing
One party shares their ownership rights
Consideration or payment for the right to use copyrighted material or compensation for services
Work Made for Hire
Work especially ordered or commissioned for use as a contribution to a collective work
Default and Cure
The inability to meet expected payments

Cure –> time given to clarify the situation

Control Composition Clause
States that recording company will pay only a percentage ( 75%) of current mechanical royalty rate to composer and publisher for any song written or co-authored by that artist/composer. Additionally there is a cap on the total mechanics payable on an album.
Harry Fox Agency
Cleaning house monitary service for mechanical licensing and royalty collection and distribution
License See
Person or company granted a right to do or sell something
Song Casting
Finding the right artist to perform a song
Split Copyright
Copyright owner shares ownership with one or more people
Foreign exploitation of copyrights Via a license from the original publisher; at the source deal, publisher and writers share income calculated on what is earned on the income
Often refers to rep released by a record company or recording artist
National Music Publishers Association
Title Search
Inspection of public records in order to trace the owner of copyright or property and/or to establish the chain of title
(recapture) Return of copyright to assigner after a contract, license, or assignment expires is voided.
Basis for how digital sound recordings work. Each section of recorded sound is sampled or extracted at a specific rate.
Self Contained Act
Group or individual that that only use their own materials
Cover Record
Song that has been rerecorded by other artists after first recording by the artist who originally introduced it
Paper Business
Printed-edition sector of a music publishing company
If recording goal has not been reached, writer will grant the publisher an extension period of 6 months
Bundle of Rights
The six exclusive rights in copyright ownership vested initially and exclusively in the author of a work.
The legal right to produce, adapt, distribute, perform publicly, and display a work of intellectual property.
Derivative work
A work based on one or more preexisting works, such as a translation,musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted.
Intellectual Property
Ideals translated from creators’ minds to tangible expressions such as songs, writing, and other forms.
Any physical medium carrying recorded music, such as a phonograph record, CD, or prerecorded tape.
In the music industry, publishing is the distribution of printed copies or phonorecords for sale, or the control of the exploitation of a work in in a print or nonprint medium.
Broadcasting over the internet; the distribution of media files over the internet via streaming media technology.
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers
Broadcast Music Inc.
Blanket License
Allows entire repertoire (from all affiliated writers and publishers) to be used by broadcasters and others for a single, annual fee.
Consent Decree
Judicial ruling expressing a voluntary agreement between parties to a suit
Dramatic Music
Music closely related to drama or a scenario, particularly opera, a musical play, ballet, narration.
Grand Right
Performance right in dramatic music
The awarding of rights to perform, reproduce, distribute, or transmit, a copyrighted work.
Mechanical License
Legal permission given by the copyright owner to make a commercial recording of copyrighted music.
Performing Rights Organization.
Society of European Stage Authors and Composers. For- Profit organization, smallest U.S performing rights society, and exploits both catalog aquisitions and licensing opportunities.
Small Right
Performance right in nondramatic music
Source License
When an entertainment company does not want to pay for a complete catalog when they use only a small portion or have limited need for music performances.
Synchronization Rights
The right to use music in such a way that it is timed to synchronize with, or relate to, action on film or video.
Transcription License
Applied imprecisely to cover music used by syndicated programs, and background music companies.
Place of performance or trial
Weighting Formula
Evaluations by a performing rights organization used in determining the relative value of various kinds of music performances in order to judge what royalties are due a writer or publisher.
Adversary Relationship
Individuals, when entering into a contract negotiation, become advisaries, despite how well they know or get along with eachother
Artist’s Personal Manager
Represents client by seeking employment for them, and as an employment agent, this person is subject to state law. Also in charge of wardrobe and overall personal things.
Contingent Payment Plan
Client pays low hourly rate, provided the gross compensation payable to lawyer in any calender month is not less than a specified percentage as clients
Full Service Agency
Self explanatory. Has everything and anything that an artist, actor, etc. needs.
Extra Legal Service
Situation where client’s attorney also manages client’s business, not just providing legal service
Franchised Agent
Talent agent licensed by an artist union or guild
Keyman Clause
Allows artist to accompany a preferred agent who switches agencies and there will be no legal or financial penalties
Talent Agent
Person who books artist gigs, performances, and venues.
Label used to describe people hired to move and set up stuff for a concert
National code of fair practice for sound recordings -> covers all singers, soloists, back up singers, choirs, etc.
Contingent Scale Payment
Extra royalty payments based on the number of recordings sold. Beneficial to singers other than primary artists
Royalty Artists
Person who is compensated for their services as a recording artist by royalties payed on each unit record ( or song) manufactured, distributed, or sold
AFM ( H& W )
AFM Health + H&W Welfare Funds:
wages paid to musician services , to locals that have established them or directly to musicians, absent such a plan, and up to 12% of gross sale wages
Acquired Master
codes needed to use AFTRA owned music, etc.
An expense assessment, a charge by a recording company against an artist’s royalties
In unions, the steward that hires performers, supervises their working conditions , and confirms they are properly paid
Shift of royalties from one property to the credit or debit of another property, resulting in a net total of royalties earned by all of them
Creative Control
The Artist’s trach record and bargaining power will determine the amount of control an artist has over issues such as song selection, choice of producer, and style of album graphic art
Special Payments Fund
When a recording company becomes a signatory to the AFM Sound recording labor agreement, simultaneously executes a Special Payments fund agreement.
Work dues
Amount assessed to or payed by workers generally 1 to 5 % of union scale wages earned by members
New Use
Application of recorded music tape or film to a medium different from the one originally intended
Extended Use
Pre-recorded tape or film used for a period longer than the one initially paid for
Union Steward
Inermediary in union that relays info from union to employers
Sunset Clause
A provision in a contract specifying that an agreement, regulation, or law will end or be modified in a predetermined way at a future point in time
American Federation of Musicians
Screen Actors Guild
American Federation of Television and Radio Artists
American Guild of Musical Artists
American Guild of Variety Artists
Actor’s equity association
Actor’s equity association
international alliance of theatrical stage employees
Adjusted Gross Income
income after all allowable taxes have been taken out
Commission Base
What a personal manager’s commission usually stems from the artist gross income from all activity
De-escalating of Commission
Switching from old to new managers
Programming an Act
looking for a client to be a headliner or at least in the most advantages position
Billing for an Act
Size, emphasis, position of the artists name in print ads, etc.
Terms of a Contract
Generally 1-2 years -> manager attempts to make longest term contract
Power of Attorney
Instrument authorizing another to act or attorney
Analogue Recording
Method of conveying/storing audio signals in which signals vary continuously thus being subject to interference or restoring
Process by which album tracks are equalized and balanced in relation to each other then transfered through master storage device to be used as a duplicating master for the purpose of manufacturing recording.
Adding music and sounds to a prerecorded tape
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
Master Purchase Agreement
A written agreement that provides the recovery of all/part of producers cost as well as a royalty that is shared by the producer/artist that have worked together on a project
A & R
Artist in repertoire
Audio Engineering Society
Analogue Recording
Electrical signal or wave form in which the amplitude and/or frequency vary continuously. Frequently contrasted with “digital.”
Digital Recording
Audio or video recording made with the analog signal converted into a stream of discrete number, thus producing an abstract template for the original sound or moving image.
House Producer
One of the company’s salaries staff production employees
Royalties: Synonymous with percentages
Production Back-timing
Production planning so that preparation for performances to unfold in an orderly fashion
Promo Pack
Package of free materials that may accompany purchase of musical instrument
Papering the House
Giving away tickets to ensure a full house
4 Walling
No box office -> only renting the theatre
Control Sheet
Pulling together performance ideas on one sheet of paper -> used by experienced promoters
National Association for Campus Activities
Standing Room Only
Split Point
Point of cumulative revenue which promoter and artist divide any net income from concerts
Scaling the House
Determening pricing of different areas in a venue
Technical Rider
Addendum to a performance contract stipulating requirements for staging, sound reinforcement, equipment,etc.
Something that is produced, formed, or presented without motive for financial gain
Cost Benefit Ratios
Assessing the benefits of spending money on an artist production
Art Music
Repertoire associated with opera, ballet, symphony, chamber music.
National Endowment for the Arts, concerned with helping the U.S
Broadcast to public
League of American Orchestras, nonprofit educational organization dedicated to strengthening symphony orchestras
National Music Council
Umbrella organization by congress to serve commercial and noncommercial to serve the interest throughout the U.S
American Council for the Arts
Forms a clearing house for info and ideas relating to state and regional art council and activities
National Association Music Merchants, helps members through training and promoting the benefits of music making
American Music Conference, national nonprofit that promotes music benefits, making, and education to public
Rack Jobber
Person paying rental fee for commission to maintain and sell inventory in a retail store.
NAMM + AMC together
Big Box Stores
Look like big boxes (ex. Walmart)
Full Line Stores
Sell everything and anything musical including lessons
Combo Store
Sells music usually used by rock bands -> drums, guitars, etc.