Date of Baroque Period
2 Important Composers of the late Baroque Period
Bach and Handel
Leading Monarch during Age of Absolutism
King Louis XIV
2 Nicknames for the late Baroque period
-Age of Absolutism
-Age of Science
What was the status of the Baroque composers?
Artisan/crafts person
3 Institutions that composers could work at.
Court,church and opera
2 adjectives describing dualism of the style of Baroque art/music
Extravagance and freedom
How did Baroque composers treat emotion in their music?
-Analyzed and Isolated
-single emotions that are depicted 1 at a time
Baroque Concerto
3 Movements:
-3rd:faster than 1st
-“to return”
-make stability
-usually starts movement off
-Contrast between 2 musical ideas
solo vs. orchestra
Concerto Grosso
many soloists vs. orchestra
What is Vivaldi’s favorite genre?
What is Bach’s favorite genre and instrument?
How many concertos did Bach write for Brandenburg?
Fugal Subject
-Single Principal Theme
-Appears again and again in each instrumental/vocal
Fugal Exposition
-Beginning of Exposition
-Voice Presents subject once after another
Stylized Dance
Dance music of listening
Baroque Opera Seria
-Serious Opera
-Principal Italian baroque type
-plot from ancient history
-solo singing
What was the standard Baroque Opera aria form?
-Da Capo
What is Coloratura style?
Ornate style of singing many notes for each sllable of text
Text of an opera is called?
-Bass continuo
“dry” harpsicord sound
What is an oratorio and when/where was it performed?
-Opera on religious subject
-entertainments during lent
-used as choir but not part of service
Where did the Classical style develop?
Vienna, Austria
What was the main genre developed by Classical composers?
Classical Style
Describe the style features of Classical music
-Texture: homophony
-Rhythm: biggest change in baroque music
-highly flexible
-Melody:pleasing variety,simple/clear,singable
-Dynamics:variety/flexible,many markings,crescendo/decresendo,piano forte replaced harpsicord
How did the Classical orchestra compare to the Baroque orchestra?
became a staple in public domain, but wasn’t adequate enough to support composers
Who was the Enlightenment ruler who encouraged arts and music?
Emperor Joseph II
French philosopher Rosseau attacked what?
Baroque Opera
What is the basic outline of a symphony in terms of movements and form?
4 Movements:
1st-opening,fast,slow intro,Sonata
2nd-slow,no standard form
3rd-persistent dance mvmt,moderate speed, Minuet w/ trio and triple meter
4th-closing,vert fast, sonata/rondo
Rondo Form
-Multiple piece movement
-Closing movement-based on repition
-main tune (A) returns again between episode ( B,C)
Minuet Trio
-classical dance form
-ABA pattern
-B is a trio
-moderate paced triple meter
-4 movement piece
-Always the opening movement of EVERY symphony
-key element:contrast
-core of entire work
-large scale ABA form-exposition,develop,recapitulation
How do most of Haydn’s symphonies sound?
-light and cheerful
What is a Sonata (genre)?
-piece for small amount number of instruments (1-2)
-3 movement
-private performance
-less formal
Classical Concerto – major difference compared to Baroque?
-Baroque concerto refined by classical concerto
-soloist vs orchestra
-long open movement
Opening movement:fast,double exposition,sonata form,cadenza at end
Slow movement: slow, no standard form
closing movement:very fast, rondo form

-Classical conerto:double exposition sonata

What is Double Exposition Form and where is it used?
-exposition played twice
-orchestra 1st w/o modulation and stays in tonic key
-soloist with modulation that balances out orchestra power
-cadenza at end with big paude for soloist to improvise
What are the instruments of a String Quartet?
-2 violin
-1 viola
-1 cello
Italian Comic Opera/buffa
-comic opera
-most progressive opera 18th centurt
-mid/lower class characters and emotions
What is an ensemble?
-Musical number in opera for 2 or more people
-depicts different emotions of characters simultaneously
-action moves forward