gregorian chant
melodies of the catholic church
monophonic
a single melodic line
The opposite of monophonic (moniphony) is_____
polyphonic (polyphony)
Liturigical music
Church music performed during worship or a religious rite.
Strophic
song structure whear every verse of the text is sung to the same musical tune; same as song verses
Syllabic
each syllable of text is set to a single note; (this is usually found in antiphons and psalms)
Neumatic
patterns of one to four notes per syllable of text
Melismatic
unlimited notes per syllable of text
Second Vatican Council
1962-1965; the Vatican announced that not only Gregorian Chants had to be used in church, other music couls also work
Recitational
Speech like singing
Jubilus
a long melisma (musical decoration) placed on the final syllable of the Alleluia. The singer sings “alleluia” without the jubilus, and then the choir repeats the word “alleluia” with the melisma added
Trope

additions of new music to pre-existing chants. Three types of additions:

1. new melismas/music without text
2. addition of a new text to a pre-existing melisma/music

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3. new verse or verses, consisting of both new text and new music

Church modes

Ionian

Dorian

Phrygian

Lydian

Mixolydian

Aeolean

Locrian

Responsorial
A chant or anthem recited or sung after a reading in a church service.
Organum
The earliest genre of medieval polyphony; a chant with at least one voice added to enhance the harmony. In its earliest stages, organum involved two musical voices that moved in parallel motion on a consonant interval (usually a Perfect 5th or 4th) and began and ended on a unison (the same note). Organum was originally improvised; while one singer performed from music another singer would improvise. Over time, composers began to write added parts.
Notes Dame School
Paris 1170-1200; the first motets were composed; a group of Parisian composers developing new compositional techniques
Léonin
1st known composer of polyphonic organum; wrote polyphonic motets with different text in each voice, rhythmic modes; member of the Notre Dame School
Pérotin
composed polyphonic organum (and started three and four-part polyphony); wrote polyphonic motets with different text in each voice, rhythmic modes; member of the Notre Dame School