Dark piece composed in 1815 by Franz Schubert based on a poem by Goethe, each stanza is different music.
Through Composed
Form of music where each stanza is different, music varies and does not repeat
Song with German text for vocal soloists accompanied by paino, both “voices” carry equal weight, for small performances.
Romantic Orchestra
Formed during Romantic Era between 1820 – 1900, orchestra grows beyond 100 members and includes the addition of the piccolo, contrabassoon and tuba.  Changes to both strings and piano change range and color.
Heiligenstadt Testament
Letter written by Beethoven in which he reveals his deafness and disgust of his ailment, intended to be sent to his brothers, but never sent, only found posthumously.
Piece composed by Frederick Chopin, subnamed “Military”, form is ABA1 and is a Polish dance.
Style of music that increases and decreases in speed, in a breathe like format, often called “robbed time” or “borrowed time”.
Style of music that takes from language, culture and historical references of a nation found in legends, myths, dances, landscapes, references, etc.  The Moldau is an example.
Harriet Smithson
Infatuation love interest of Hector Berlioz whom he first sees as she performs at a play.  Berlioz composed Symphony Fantastique in her image.  Married Berlioz in 1830’s and seperated in 1844.
Opera composed by Giuseppe Verdi in 1850 based on the play “The Kings Fool”;written by Victor Hugo;which was banned in France.; Story was modified to be performed in Italy with the King replaced by a Duke.
Character in Rigoletto, daughter of main character; center of the story.; Love interest of the Duke.;;Killed due to misfortune and wrong identity.
Idee Fixe
Melody found in Symphonie Fantastique; fixed idea found in each movement of a piece.
Symphonic Poem
Single movement piece, programmatic; also known as a tone poem, do not usually follow a form because they follow the flow of the poem, The Moldau is an example.
Program Music
Music which tells a story in literary or pictoral sense; often includes a narrative to the audience.
Absolute Music
Music that does not tell a story, music is just for music; also known as pure music.
Program Symphony
A multimovement Program Music piece; Symphonie Fantastique is a Program Symphony.
Form of music that blurs melodies/harmonies offering indistinct forms.; Orchestral pieces shrink in size with a focus on wood winds with limited use of brass.; Harp is introduced.
Rite of Spring
Third commissioned ballet piece by Igor Stravinsky; includes a massive orchestra, premiered in 1913 in Paris, received very poorly.; Primitivism piece.
Style of music that offers insistent rhythms and use of defined percussive sounds.; Rite of Spring is an example.
Billy the Kid
Piece composed by Aaron Copeland first performed in Chicago in 1938.; Very widely performed based on old American Folksongs.; Orchestral Suite was composed in 1940.
Aaron Copeland
Born in 1900 and died in 1990.; Very humble, made a personal decision at 15 to become a composer.; Known as the Dean of American Music.; Wrote Billy the Kid.
Sergei Diaghilev
Commissioned Igor Stravinsky to create musical pieces after finding his music.; First piece commissioned was Firebird that also put Stravinsky “on the map”.
Igor Stravinsky
Russian born composer born into a musical family.; Commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev to compose music, first piece was Firebird.; Composed Rite of Spring as well.; Moved to Switzerland in 1914 and US in in 1939.; Received Grammy for Lifetime Music.
Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun
Piece composed by Claude Debussy based on a poem by Stephan Mellarme.; Impressionistic style offering a dream sequence in a loose ABA1 form.
Claude Debussy
Born in 1862 died in 1918.; French born composer from a non-musical family.; Attends Paris Conservatory and was considered a “natural rebel”.; Enters Prix de Rome in 1884.; Well traveled but very egotistical and pompous.; Honored as Greatest Living Composer at the time.
Hector Berlioz
Born in 1803, died in 1869.; Family wanted him to become a doctor.; 1826 enters Paris Conservatory, infatuated with Harriet Smithsom.; Composed Symphonie Fantastique.
Symphonie Fantastique
Piece composed by Hector Berlioz, referencing Harriet Smithson, his infatuation.; Melody is idee fixe and has 5 movements.
The Moldau
Nationalistic piece composed by Bedrich Smetna;based on a river in Bohemia by same name.; From the works known as “My Country”.; Symphonic poem.
Bedrich Smetana
Born in 1824 and died in 1884.; Founder of the Czech National Music.; Discouraged to be a musician.; Opens a school for Piano in 1848 and marries in 1849.; Wrote a lot of programmatic and nationalist music.; Went deaf (but quicker then Beethoven).
Frederick Chopin
Born in 1810 dies in 1849.; Piano Virtouso and only wrote piano music.; Met “George Sand” who help culture Chopin.; Own music was played at funeral “Funeral March”.; Absolute Composer, wrote music for its own sake with mostly minature pieces.
Franz Schubert
Born in 1797 and dies in 1828.; Worshipped Beethoven and his music.; Free spirited in ideals, moving around often.; Best known for melody composers.; Wrote Erlking in 1815.
Ludwig von Beethoven
Born in 1770 and died in 1827.; One of the most well known composers, became deaf towards end of life (wrote Heiligenstadt Testament).; Known as a virtouse piano initially.; Somewhat stubburn and self motivated.; Wrote many pieces including Symphony #5 in C Minor.; Had three styles Classical Era, Heroic Period (romantic) and Intellectual (personal)
Symphony Number 5 in C Minor (Movement 1)
Piece of music composed by Ludwig von Beethoven.; In a sonata form, ABA1.; Variation in expostion and Coda with 2nd recapilation.