Melody
the line, or tune, in music
ascending melody
uplifting and exciting
arch melody
rise, climax, fall
contour
how the melody moves up and down
range
span of pitches
interval
the distance between any two pitches
conjunct
a melody that moves in small, connected intervals
disjunct
a melody that moves by leaps
phrases
the units that make up a melody; a unit of meaning within a larger structure, like a musical sentence
cadences
the resting place in a musical phrases
counter melody
a melody that is accompanied by a secondary melody; an added melody sounding against another melody
rhyme scheme
poetic and musical phrases usually align
frequency
number of vibrations per second
duration
length of time
amplitude
a music sound percieved at a certain volume
Rhythm
movement of music in time
simple meters
simple recurring patterns; typically 2,3 or 4 beats grouped in a measure
meter
marked off in measures, organizes the beats in music; usually the strongest beat
duple meter
two beats per measure
compound meter
divisible by three beats instead of two
syncopation
deliberate disruption of pattern; accent shifted to a weak beat or off beat
polyrhythm
simultaneous use of different rhythmic patterns
nonmetric
music without a strong sense of beat or measure
beat
the basic units in music
downbeat
measures often begin with a strong _________________
measure lines
regular vertical lines through the staff
tonality
the principle of organization around a central tone; the tonic; organization where we hear a piece in relation to a central tone
dissonance
a combination of tones that sounds discordant, in need of a resolution
consonance
a concordant, or agreeable, combination of musical tones that provides a sense of relaxation and fulfillment
major tonality
brighter/happier
minor tonality
subdued/sad
chord
three of more notes stacked on top of each other
scale
collection of pitches arranged in ascending or descending order
octave
distance between first and last note. spanning 8 notes of the major/minor scale; most harmoneous sound you can play in music
triad
three note chord
tonic chord (key note)
first note of the scale; is the “home base”
musical system
melody and harmony functioning together to make a musical system
half step
the smallest unit used to divide an octave
western octave
12 equal semitones
major/minor scales
seven pitches drawn from 12
up a scale (half step)
# (sharp)
down a scale (half step)
b (flat)
chromatic scale
made up of these twelve half steps
diatonic scale
built on patterns of seven whole and half steps that form major and minor scales
microtones
intervals smaller than a half step (only used in some parts of the world)
transposition
playing in a different key
modulation
the process of moving from one key to another
active chords
seek to be resolved completed
texture
the interweaving of the melodic lines with harmony in music
monophony
the simplest texture; single voice music without accompaniment
heterophony
refers to multiple voices elaborating the same melody at the same time
homophony
texture with principal melody and accompanying harmony
polyphony
two or more melodic lines combined into a multivocal texture
imitation
when a melodic idea is presented in one voice, then restated in another
counterpoint
one line set against another
form
structure or shape of a piece of music; the organizing principle in music; its basic elements are repetition, contrast and variation.
strophic form
common in songs, features repeated music for each stanza of text
contrast
doing something one way and then switching it
variation
an idea that is presented then changed throughout the piece by adding notes
improvisation
the performer has liberty within a piece to create their own lines
binary form
the idea is presented and then is contrasted
theme
a melodic idea used as a building block in music
thematic development
theme that has slight changes but is still recognizable
sequence
occurs when a theme is repeated at a higher or lower pitch
motive
smallest fragment of a theme
call and response
someone plays/sings and then is repeated by a group
ostinato
a repeated figure throughout an entire work
tempo
the rate of speed, or pace, of the music
dynamics
describe the volume, or how loud or soft the music is played
adagio
slow
allegro
fast
forte
loudest
piano
softest
crescendo
louder
decrescendo
softer
a capella
choral groups singing without accompaniment
chamber music
ensemble music for small groups, with one player per part
string quartet
2 violins, viola, chello
duo sonata
one person accompanied by a piano
orchestra
features 80-100 players