Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Philosopher, writer, composer

Wanted opera to become more natural and uncomplicated than Baroque opera seria

The music-capital city of the classical period
Movements of the Classical Symphony and their forms and tempos
1. Opening Movement
-Fast Tempo
-Sonata form

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2. Slow Movement
-slow tempo
-several possible forms

3. Minuet
-Moderate Tempo
-Minuet Form

4. Closing Movement
-fast Tempo
-Sonata or Rondo form

Hayden is the father of?
Symphony, String Quartet
Symphony No 95- Hayden
1. Opening Movement

2. Slow Movement
-Theme and Variation

3. Minuet
Minuet form

4. Closing Movement
Rondo form

What is Minuet form?

-Also in Ternary, Contrasts in meter

What always returns in Rondo form?
The A section
Rondo form of Hayden’s last movement?
A B A B C A coda
Ternary Form
B is often know as the trio, especially in Minuets
Names of the sections in Sonata form?
Exposition- Development- Recapitulation
Parts of the Sonata: Exposition.
Form and Function and Key?
Introduces Basic material.

1. Theme 1 (T1) presented in tonic key
2. Transition (trans) involving modulation to new key
3. Theme 2 (T2) presented in new key
4. Closing theme (CT) ends the section in new key
5. Possible repeat of entire exposition

Usually I to V, or i to III

Parts of the Sonata: Development.
Function and Form and Key?
Develops musical ideas presented in the exposition.

Completely up to the composer (X)
Constant modulation (Never settles)
Concluded with a retransition (retrans)


Retransition is where in a sonata?
End of the Development.
Parts of the Sonata:Recapitulation.
Function and Form and Key?
All elements of the exposition heard again in the original order

Theme 1 in the tonic key
Transition altered so Theme 2 will occur in the tonic key
Theme 2 in the tonic key
Closing theme in the tonic key
Possible repeat of both development and recapitulation

I – I

All elements in the Recapitulation occur in what key?
The Tonic
What is different between the exposition and the recapitulation besides the key?
The transition is altered
Some alterations that can occur in a Sonata
A Coda
More or Less than two themes in the exposition
A slow introduction
Difference between Mid 18th Century Sonatas and late 18th Century sonatas?
Late 18th Century sonata’s had the addition of the minuet movement. Fast- Slow- Minuet- Fast
Short segments of a melody. Usually two measures
two incises. 4 bars
Two phrases. Usually 8 bars
How are mid to late 18th century forms and styles a reaction to those of the 17th and early 18th century?
Francesca LeBrun
Exact contemporary with Mozart
– Famous vocalist, pianist, and composer
Galant Style
Light accompaniment
Organized periodicity
Simple Melodies
Empfindsamer stil means? Characteristics?
Sensitive style

Restless- element of surprise
Many rhythmic patterns Dotted Figures (Scotch Snap/Lombard)
Asymmetrical runs (5 and 13)
ornamentation as expression

Expanded Binary Form
Function of String Quartet?
For social enjoyment
Forms in string quartet.
Fast- Expanded sonata
Slow- Sonata
Minuet- Rondo or Sonata
W.A. Mozart years?
Difference between Baroque Concerto and Classical Concerto?
Both contrast between soloist and orchestra, 3 movements and virtuosity.
Key Differences: Classical orchestra was more developed and the first movement form was double-exposition form
Classical Concerto Movements
1. Opening movement Fast Double-exposition form 2. Slow movement Slow Several possibilities 3. Closing movement Fast Rondo form
What is Double Exposition Form?
Opera Buffa
Italian Comic Opera
Characters in Opera Buffa ar often what?
Characters are often peasants involved in “real life” situations
What is an important difference between Opera Seria and Opera Buffa?
Operatic Ensembles
Lorenzo Da Ponta. What issue did he deal with?
Librettist for 3 Mozart Operas
Le nozze di Figaro, 1786
Don Giovanni, 1787
Cosi fan tutte, 1790

Dealt with class conflict in his writing.

Beethoven Dates
CSE Bach- Sonata in A Major.
What style?
Empfindsamer stil
Empfindsamer stil
‘Sensitive Style’
What did Beethoven do with the Symphony?
Stretched everything about it. Used full ranges, instrumentation, dissonance. Made it very exciting and unpredictable
Motivic consistency through ALL 4 movements in a symphony. BEETHOVEN.
Scherzo means what in Italien?
Beehtoven’s 9th.
Choral movement
Heiligenstadt Testament
Beethoven’s letter in which he stated that the only reason he hadn’t committed suicide was because he had so many musical gifts to give
Fast, in 3, replaced the Minuet in Beethoven symphonies