in the most advanced style
at the forefront – vanguard
art and intellectual movement who believed in total anti-traditionalism
new ideas of expression and technique, or bringing new life of old technique
starting in 1870s
claude monet, claude debussy – shows the perceived outside world
fragmentary motives, little flashes of tone color
closely followed impressionism – 1870s
very unrealistic, revolted against realism of words and music.
claude debussy was symbolist also
same time as impressionism
shows inner feelings and emotions.
anguish, hysteria, clashing of strong colors, irregular shapes, jagged lines. Inner turbulence
pentatonic scale
5 note scale with intervals of the black notes on the piano – Do re me sol la`
whole-tone scale
whole steps – do re mi fi le te do
only two whole tone scales, having C or C#
octatonic scale
8 note scale with alternating whole and half steps – do re ri fa fi le la ti do
a method of composing with the 12 tones solely in relation to one another – not in relation to a simple pitch or Do
music with no tonal center – Do
reached with a total emancipation of dissonance
sound not fully organized into pitches
shoenberg’s pierrot lunaire
twelve-tone system
a method of composing with the 12 tones solely in relation to one another – not in relation to a simple pitch or Do
second viennese school
Arnold shoenberg, alban berg, Anton webern
Nadia boulanger
16 September 1887 – 22 October 1979
Famous french composer conductor teacher and a woman (oh shit!)
taught many renowned composers of the 20th century(Aaron Copland, John Eliot Gardiner, Dinu Lipatti, Igor Markevitch, Philip Glass, and Astor Piazzolla), studied at the paris conservatory
believed in each student finding their own style of music
20th century compositional style that wasn’t avante-garde. continued romanticism, especially for film music
Ravel, Bartok, Copland, Prokofiev
musique concrete
incorporation of the sounds of life.
called concrete because it used actual sound, as opposed to abstract products of electronic sound generators. sounds were recorded and manipulated on disks
chance music
elements of the music are left up to chance by the composer-
lux aeterna
total serialism
12 chromatic pitches are put in an order and then only used in that order
also, efforts to serialize rhythm, dynamics, and tone color – mathematical theories in compositions
John Cage
father of chance music.
basically drew pictures and said “here. play this”
shitty music.
1952. john cage
4 minutes and 33 seconds of fuckall. no noise at all. audience noise is not music.
Milton Babbitt
May 10, 1916 – January 29, 2011
American composer, music theorist, and teacher – serial and electronic music
“who cares if you Listen?”
article by milton babbitt
composer shouldn’t have to write music audiences enjoy, they should write what they want to.
music with simple chords, smaller ensembles, emerging in the 1960’s
ex. music for 18 musicians
cultivated music
the classical of “classical and popular music”
music that has been brought to this country, studied, and taught in conservatories.
Vernacular music
the popular of “classical and popular music”
music written in the native tongue, that we hear and sing naturally.
minstrel show
comedy routines and black dances and music performed by white men with their faces painted black
call and response
musical procedure – a phrase first sung by a soloist and answered/echoed (the response) by a chorus. preserved in black church music, where the congregation answers the preachers call.
a religious folk song that came into being outside an established church (white or black). many were begun by black slaves, such as “nobody knows the trouble i’ve seen”
part of improvisation
basically, a made up melody tossed into a song by the soloist
placing emphasis on beats that are not usually the strong beats. in jazz, the 8th note is moved slightly back, into the “swung” style.
black folk song about loneliness, troubles, and depression. the musical expression of the African American experience. blues also can convey humor, banter, hope, and resilience. emerged around 1900
preview of jazz, led by scott joplin (1868-1917)
early 1900s
left hand played on beats, right hand played syncopated cheerful rhythms. not supposed to be taken very quickly.
big bands
jazz for larger audiences needed more players- from 10-25. jazz songs were more carefully arranged and improvisation was limited.
Louis Armstrong
jazz trumpeter, big deal in the jazz world. national star, and in 20 movies.
nicknamed satchmo for satchel=mouth
became successful and drifted away from “true” jazz, last record called hello dolly in 1964 in which he sang a lot.
big band jazz. new variety of tone color and instumental effects. orchestration usually alternated brass and saxophone sounds, and soloists with band.
black jazz musicians who were out of work developed it by jamming together in small groups. bebop combo was trumpet and saxophone with piano and rhythm. bebop returned to improvisation but with much technical flair – FAST NOTES! used lots of percussive sounds and sharp, snappy rhythms.
like opera with speech and song seperate.
alternate name for musical comedy
rose in the 20’s and 30’s
principal composers jerome kern and george gershwin.
Clouds from Three Nocturnes
1899 – impressionist music
claude debussy
has ‘cloud music’ the repeatcing chords in the woodwinds, english horn solo
uses lots of parallel chords
The rite of spring
1913 Igor Stravinsky impressionist music
introduction -> dance of the adolescents -> the game of abduction -> Round Dances of Spring
Pierrot lunaire, no. 8 night
1912 – voice, piano, bass clarinet, cello
schoenberg – expressionist music
uses sprechstimme to distort and haunt the music
uses words of poet albert giraud
describes Pierrot, and presents the nightmarish feeling of the music
pierrot lunaire, no. 18 the moonfleck
1912 – voice, piano, piccolo, clarinet, violin, cello – schoenberg – expressionist
faster than no. 8
about a speck of moonshine on his jacket that he tries to wipe off and goes crazy over
wozzeck, act III, scenes iii and iv
1923 – alban berg – expressionist music
opera about a poor soldier whos GF cheats on him, so he kills her. he goes crazy and accidentaly drowns. then there’s a lot of music about how sad you should feel.
piano concerto in G, !
freeish sonata form – maurice ravel – concerto
can barely tell it’s a piano concerto at first, listen for the trumpet parts
uses parallel chords like debussy but sound completely different.
Appalachian spring section 1,2,5,6
1945 – aaron copland -ballet – martha graham choreographed
1- the spirit of a silent landscape at dawn, meditative solo figures.
2- newlyweds celebrate their new house with a dance, and a slow contrapuntal hymn rises up (in the winds)
5- variations on simple gifts
6- hymn and landscape music return, ballet concludes.
five orchestral pieces IV
lux aeterna
poeme electronique
music for 18 musicians
el nino
if you ever been down
Conga brava
1940 – Duke Ellington – big band jazz
tenor sax solo, clarinet break, muted brass interjections
out of nowhere
1948 – charlie parker and miles davis – bebop
popular bebop tune
trumpet solo with bright rapid high notes
tenor sax improvisation, more fast melodies
audience claps, piano plays final solo, band finishes the piece.
bitches brew
1969 – miles davis – fusion jazz (jazz mixed with rock)
guitar and piano play rhythmic patters against jazz drum background
trumpet solo for a while
screechy high notes
solo quiets down
Instruments in Pierrot Lunaire
5 players:
flute, clarinet, violin, cello, piano
flute/picc, clar/bass clar, violin/viola
instruments of jazz performers
saxophones, rhythm (piano, guitar, bass, drumset), trombones, trumpets, occasionally clarinets. Rich Matteson on euphonium
General dates and composers of Inpressionism, expressionism, modernism, traditionalism, minimalism, neoromanticism
impressionism- 1870-1890(ish)
expressionism- 1910-1950
modernism- 1890-1940 (WW1 and WW2)
minimalism- 1960-1990