What is the difference between study and research?
Study: gathering and learning information
Research: synthesizing what you have learned and then using it to contribute new knowledge to the world
Name 5 different categories of research methodologies
Quantitative or experimental
Qualitative or descriptive
Aesthetic Inquiry
Historical Research
Philosophical Research
What is the difference between criticism and analysis?
Criticism: music critic writing a review of a performance, score, or recording. Makes assumptions based on context and expectations.

Analysis: uses certain processes and follows the rules of that process in order to govern expectations. Relies on inductive reasoning to make generalizations.

Name 7 schools of Analysis (Aesthetic inquiry)
Schenker Analysis
Formal Analysis
Harmonic Analysis
Pitch Class Set Theory
Tone Row Analysis
Style Analysis
Messiaen Analysis
Describe Schenker Analysis. Name an example.
Everything boils down to a I V I structure.
Analyzes tonal shifts in a piece about music; all about arches
Form of tonal analysis
Book examples by Heinrich Schenker: “Der Tonwille,” “Harmonielehre”
Describe Formal Analysis. Name an example.
Analysis of a piece according to classically accepted forms such as rondo, sonata, etc. Heinrich Koch, “Versuch einer Anleitung zur Composition”
Describe Harmonic Analysis. Name an example.
Analysis by chord progression. Rameau, “Traite de harmonie”
Describe Pitch Class Theory Analysis. Name an example.
Analysis of atonal music by means of intervals. Alan Forte, “The Structure of Atonal Music”
Describe Tone Row Analysis. Name an example.
Analysis by means of 12-tone rows and their pemutations. Arnold Schoenberg.
Describe Style Analysis. Name an example.
SHMRG: analysis by sound, harmony, melody, rhythm, and growth. A holistic approach which treats all of the above elements as important. Jan LaRue, “Guidelines for Style Analysis”
Describe Messiaen Analysis. Name an example.
Analysis by Messiaen’s standards, including bird song, rhythm, and color. Messiaen, “Traite de rhythme, de couleur, et d’ornithologie.” Which just translates to rhythm, color, and birds.
Name 14 types of historical research
Biography, Oral History, Text Criticism, Translations, Source Studies, Iconography, Organology, Performance Practices, Gender Studies, Periodization, Genre Studies, Notation Studies, Influences, Reception History
Name 3 styles of Biography. Give an example of each.
Narrative Biography: the person’s story, usually considered in historical context. Richard Taruskin biography of Stravinsky.

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Documentary Biography: uses only documents, such as letters, to tell the story (reflects positivist concern about interference by the observer). Otto Deutsch biography of Schubert.

Hybrid (mix of the two types). H.C. Robin Landons biography of Haydn.

What are the steps of Oral History, and why is it used? Name an example.
Steps: interview, contract, recording, transcribe, send to person for editing as they wish, then publish or post. Used because a living person is a primary source.

Vivian Perlis (Yale) histories of Aaron Copland and Charles Ives

When and how is text criticism used? Name an example.
Usually employed for very old sources where the primary source must be reconstructed from a comparison of later texts, such as codexes and early music fragments. The end result is called an Authoritative text. Examples are the Dead Sea Scrolls, Royal Skousen text analysis of the Book of Mormon.
What is a translation? Name an example.
A translation begins with an authoritative text and translates it from there into a modern language. An example is Thomas Mattheson’s “Aristides Quintilianus “On Music””
How do you conduct a Source Study? Name an example.
Find the earliest sources and compare them. Include research into the composer’s correspondence and handwriting. End result is a scholarly edition of a text or score. Holoman “Autograph Musical Documents of Hector Berlioz”
What is Iconography? Name an example.
Study of a music topic, usually an instrument, through pictures representing it. Collect and study old representations, art, etc. to draw conclusions. Howard Brown (Harvard), “Harp in 13th c.”
What is organology? Name examples.
The study of the construction of historic instruments, including lists of organ stops, illustrated violin books, instrument museums, even studies of the varnish on Strads. The Galpin Society Journal.
What is studied in Performance Practice research? Name an example.
How music was performed in its historical context, including early music research about ornamentation, replicas of old instruments.
Journal: Performance Practice Review
When and why is Gender Studies a research topic in music history? Name an example
Women and minorities have been underrepresented in traditional histories. Gender and Gay studies dominated many music history departments throughout the 1990s. Examples: “Women Make Noise,” “ The Musical Woman (History of Women in Music)”
What is Periodization? Name an example.
Classifying and describing music by the historical period in which it was written, or by periods within a single composer’s life: Example Stravinsky Russian influence, then atonal and serialism, then Neo-classical
Making broad conclusions from multiple examples that tend to establish a trend
What are Notation Studies?
Studies of early notation types and sources, including Greek and Chinese music notation, and various sorts of tablatures.
What is a Genre Study? Name an example.
Gives narrative of a particular genre over time. Alfred Einstein “The Italian Madrigal”
What are Influence Studies? Name an example.
Concept: you can’t understand music by just analysing it; you must place it in the context in which it was born. Societal influences affect the music. For example, Shostakovich’s dealings with Communism
Where would you find information on reception history? Name an example
Go to RIPM. An example would be Mendelssohn’s revival of Bach
Name 5 different philosophical foundations for research.
Define Positivism; name example(s)
Only takes into account facts, documents
examples are documentary biography, iconography, descriptive research
Define Post-positivism; name example(s)
Bias is inevitable. Narrative is therefore just as valid as documentation, but one must try to find and point out biases.
Define Hermeneutics; name example(s)
Understand a text through methods of interpretation. Need to find the method of interpretation that is most appropriate to what you are studying.This method is
most prominent in Aesthetic analysis and performance practices research. It is not positivist, as different methods of analysis lead to different conclusions.
Define Phenomenology
Study of consciousness and objects of direct experience: stream of consciousness, looking at things from different perspectives. What is most important is the experience of the audience and the musicians. This perspective is the most common at BYU.
Define Deconstructionism; name example(s)
Began with Jacques Derrida, linguist and literary scholar in early 20th c. Related to existentialism. Assumption: there is no absolute truth; it varies with each individual, and is therefore unknowable.There is therefore no set authority, even the composer. Your biases limit you only to text; the context cannot be known by you. This leads to textual analysis of the most basic kind, such as analyzing opposites within the text. Carol Abate, Princeton: “What the Sorcerer Said” analysis of Sorcerer’s Apprentice
What is Philosophical Research?
Philosophical Research
Questions basic assumptions about research
Can be considered research or opinion–if it is research, it is methodical in its analysis of arguments and assumptions
Questions fundamentals about any type of research, like how we approach biography or iconography
Also can undertake research from a strong philosophical bias, such as Marxism