A through composed piece of music written originally for voice (one singer per part); sold in parts; much text painting; originated from Italy during renaissance. Adopted for instrument and voice in late 16th century.
Musique Mesuree:
Long vowels for long notes, short notes get short vowels; often composed in a long, short, short pattern. Poets began using it in the French Chanson tradition; Poets used it to try and unite poetry and music; attempt to revive Greek tradition, hoping to improve society. Late 16th Century.
St. Mark’s Cathedral:
Private chapel of the Doge of Venice; it was constructed as a symmetric cross with choir recesses in each which at times could hold individual choirs to create “surround sound”. Gabrieli utilized the space for instruments as well.
Giovanni Gabrieli:
Late 16th early 17th. Studied with Oralndo di Lasso in Munchen. Was organist, composer, and supervisor of instrumentalists at St. Mark’s. One of first to specify dynamics and instrumentation.
“Baroque” Period: please give a translation of the word, dates, and list significant musical features
Translation means “misshapen pearl” (from 1800s; they thought the music was “too gaudy, ornamented, and filial” by 1800s standards, era was from 1600-1750(ish). Monody (Melody plus accompaniment) was used in this period. Tonality is not yet completely functional, yet ionian and aeolian modes used mostly. Melody is supported by basso continuo; figured bass in full effect.
Seconda practica:
Monteverdi introduces term in early 17th. Argues that dissonances can be used to convey emotion; countered to Artusi’s argument that contemporary composers are untrained and unskilled, using parts of Monteverdi’s piece as an example.
Continuo ensemble:
An ensemble made of small combinations of viol, keyboard, cello, and bassoon (among others) that was accompaniment to a melody (in monody). Rose in use in the 17th century.
Figured Bass:
A practical system for notating chords over a single bass line (giving numbers) for keyboard, lute, and theorbo
Basso Continuo:
An ensemble made of small combinations of viol, keyboard, cello, and bassoon (among others) that was accompaniment to a melody (in monody). Rose in use in the 17th century.
A form that grew out of the desire to bring back ancient Greek dramas. From Italy out of the florentine camerata.
Pastoral Drama:
The pastoral drama was a play that was in verse with music and songs interspersed. The creation of such dramas was influenced heavily by Greek and Roman pastoral poems that told of idyllic love in rural settings. In pastoral dramas would sometimes be interspersed or performed with music. The subject, style, mythological character types and use of music and dance were all adopted by the earliest opera composers.
The intermedio was a musical interlude on a pastoral, allegorical, or mythological subject performed twixt the play’s acts. They were created to mark the end of an Act, and there were usually six per play. Intermedi for important occasions were elaborate and could combine dialogue with music, dances, costumes, and scenery. As such, they contained all of the elements of opera except for a plot.
Girolamo Mei:
§ Whole thing of Greek drama was sung § Thought that the melody and text could only be imparted if heard through a single line
Florentine Camerata:
The Florentine Camerata was an academy hosted by Giovanni Bardi where an academy where scholars discussed literature, science, and the arts and musicians performed new music. It’s significane is that Mei’s letters on Ancient Greek Drama was often discussed here, and it also promoted a wider interest in classical antiquity, from which opera stemmed.
Monody is accompanied solo singing where a single melody is supported by accompaniment. Caccini wrote Le nuove musiche which contained two new types of monody. The first was an aria, which was a strophic song and the second was a solo madrigal, which was a through composed solo song. Peri, along with Rinuccini (a poet), created the first opera in 1598, Dafne, which was modeled on Greek plays. In a later work by this duo, entitled L’Euridice (1600), devised monody that imitated speech (the recitative), which varied the approach to match the dramatic situation. In this work, sinfonia was introduced (a new type of monody), that had a repetition at the end of each stanza. Arias were used for poetic speech and for more emotional moments. Monteverdi was the first composer to utilize opera to its fullest potential. Monteverdi, skilled in vocal composition, wrote works such as L’Orfeo and L’Arianna, that were meant for court performance. In L’Orfeo, Monteverdi utilized strophic variation in his arias, as well as employing the recitative style; this opera also had a a mix of musical styles and used a larger group of accompanying instruments. The use of monody in the second act to push forth the momentum of the drama. In his later works, Monteverdi used monody to convey emotions such as anger through the concitato genere/ stile concitato. In his Venetian operas, Monteverdi used the arioso monody style to enhance characters.
Aria (definition from 1600-1650):
The first was an aria, which was a strophic song and Arias were used for poetic speech and for more emotional moments.
Solo Madrigal:
Through composed songs meant to convey text.
Recitative Style:
Developed by Peri, composer of the first opera and first surviving opera. this style was halfway between oratory and song. The notes of the basso continuo are held while the voice moves freely through consonances and dissonances. The voice simulates the free declamation of poetry; should fall between naturalistic rise and fall of voice instead of diastematic tones. Bass chords have no rhythmic profile. Voice imitates inflections and rhythms of poetic speech. Each phrase ends in a cadence to mimic speech.
A song style that mixes aria and recitative style, easily switching between both depending on the the dramatic intent
Jacopo Peri:
Italian composer, often called “the inventor of opera” along with Caccini. Wrote the first opera Dafne in 1597, and then the first survivng opera, Euridice in 1600. Creator of recitative stylel
Claudio Monteverdi:
Born in Italy, studied under a cathedral director; worked for Gonzaga. Married a court singer. Became Maestro di Cappella at St. Mark’s in Vnice in early 17th. Wrote almost completely vocal works. Focussed the music on the text. Expressive music to show emotioons and felleings. Focused mostly on madrigals; transformed the genre. Propoonent of secunda practica.
Antonio Cesti:
Composer for the public opera houses. Worked for the archduke of Austria. Became one of the most performed operas of the 17th century around the world.
Ground Bass:
Ostinato or ground bass is a short bass line that repeats over and over while the melody changes aboe it. Monteverdi used the descending tetrachord, which is a stepwise descent spanning a fourth, and the chacona, which is a bass pattern and chordal pattern adapted from a Latin American dance, in his works.
A song of grief used in opera; a descending fourth line was characteristic of this type of piece.
Invented in Italy in the 17th. Before 1620 it described a group of published strophic arias, mid-century, started describing secular song. Usually for solo voice. Text is lyrical and dramatic. Includes several sections of arias and recitatives. Coomposed for purpose of performance in homes of aristocrats. Ross, Cesti, Carissimi, and Strozzi composed many.
Different from sacred concerto as itis not part of the service, not staged, no costumed, sacred. Large presence of chorus. Long piece. Many or several solists. British liked the form because it wasn’t sinful like opera.
Stile antico/stile moderno:
The stile modern was a modern non-contrapuntal style shown through concertato medium, basso continuo, monody, and operatic styles, while the stile antico was the old contrapuntal style. Both of these styles were used in the church, the stile antico influenced from Palestrina and the stile modern from music outside the church.
Musical form.
Barbara Strozzi:
Fathe was a wealthy venetian. Had meetings where men would meet and discuss science and other matters such as this. He allowed his daughter to participate, which was unusual. She was adopted by Julio, and was his actual daughter. 4 kids by 3 fathers. Different from other women of her tume in that she published cantata under her own name.
Mixture of haut and bass instruments meaning groups of stringed, brass, keyboard and wind instrumentws. Sometimes used to accompany voice.
Stringed instrument used with solo voice, or on its own. Was plucked. Very popular from 1500 to late 17th.
Viol (viola da gamba):
A family of instruments that have a muted warm sound, as it is held by the knees. 7 strings. From the 1450s onward.
A brilliant and loud string isntrument used from the 15th century onward.
A plucked keyboard instrument with no ability to alter dynamics. Many notes in small time spans used to show virtuosity.
Name for harpsichord in England.
Musical genre specific for keyboard instruments. Grew in the mid 15th.
A many sectioned instrumental form that could be picked up and end and at several points.
An instrumental piece written so that is idiomatic and virtuosic for specific instruments.
Dance Suite:
A set of instrumental pieces meant to be danced to.
Describe compositional features and performances practices of the sixteenth-century Italian madrigal. List one early, one middle, and one late contribution to the genre, and briefly explain how each work is representative of the genre.
A madrigal is a through composed piece written for or more voices, one singer per part. Originally, these pieces were meant for home performance, with each singer purchasing a book that only had their own part in it. Meant for the entertainment of the performers. Came out of Italy in the late 15th Century Il bianco e dolce ciano is an early madrigal; it is through composed and has simple vocal lines; uses ppoint of imitation. Da le belle contrade d’orinte is a mid-madrigal. Uses different tonality, and has large emphasis on particular words within the work; chromatic tones emerge. Solo e pensoso is a late madrigal that has chromatic lines throughout, as well as point of imitation; suspensions and coss relations used; challenging vocal lines meant for professionsal singers.
What musical, poetic, and expressive aspects of the Italian madrigal were most influential on later generations?
The expression of individual words was an influence on early opera and the want to express the drama of a piece. The shaping melody and rhythm to mimic natural speech was influential on the Camerata. The madrigal itself was adopted as the solo madrigal, which was a through composed expressive solo piece that was a component of early opera; Cesti and Monteverdi use this form. The poetry of madrigals, which includes much pastoral and court love, themes which were adopted in opera; L’Orfeo is an opera which focusses on forbidden love, similar to court love.
Using Weelkes’s As Vesta Was as a model, describe the English madrigal tradition.
Why do we have so little instrumental music from before 1450? How and why did this changer after about 1450? What early genres existed, and what forces enabled instrumental music to grow into the Baroque period?
Before 1450, instrumental western instrumental music was mainly learned by wrote, as it was not used to a large degree outside of the Catholic Church. AS the reformation progressed, new churches used instruments to varying degrees. Additionally, the invention of the printing press made it easier to print and distribute to instrumentalists. The growth of private chapels, especially in Italy, gave instrumentalists a new venue of practice and performance, and the want of the patrons to show their worth through their cultivation of arts lead them to publishing instrumental works, both secular and sacred.
What types of sixteenth-century instrumental music forms were derived from vocal music? How do these types differ from those written originally for instruments?
As virtuosity increased for vocalists in the 16th, the want to write virtuosic instrumental music increased. Out of this forms such as fugues, toccatas, sonatas, cappricio, canzonas, partitas and variations were formed. The difference in this music is that in addition to being idiomatic, now the music was written to that virtuosic level.
How was Venice different from other Italian city-states? How did this affect the patronage of the arts? Reference one or two works which were created for performance in this city, or would have likely been performed there.
Venice had a large amount of wealth due to its easy port access and heavy tourism during carnival. There was a large middle class of artisans and craftsmen. In Venice, there was also many private chapels which fostered the growth of newly composed music, both secular and sacred. Pieces such as Gabrieli’s Sacrae symphoniae was written to be performed in St. Mark’s cathedral in Venice (the private chapel of the Doge of Venice). L’incoronazione di Poppea was an opera written for the public opera houses of Venice by Monteverdi. The public opera houses started in Venice, due to the large middle class and the tourists.
What new developments in science, politics and economics arose during the seventeenth century? How did they influence music?
As nations became prevalent in Europe, national styles came to the forefront. As this happened, French and English styles formed. Italy, still in its city-state style of government, saw a large innovation in music, for the states and their rulers competed with each other to be at the forefront of creating art. During this time, a scientific revolution swept through Europe which was based upon observation and math. This new empirical system of science lead to music relying on the effect of perception, leading to influence on the secunda practica. As an economic advantage, several countries created colonies in North and South America. The influence of these new areas is found in music in new forms such as the ciaccona. Additionally, the new capitalist system saw public investment in the arts, such as the rise of public opera.
In what ways were the literature, art, and architecture of the seventeenth century theatrical or dramatic? How does this compare to music of the time?
Baroque literature and art first came about in Italy. Statues such as Bernini’s David show an evolution to express not only the individual human, but the emotion of context behind each piece. Baroque architecture is theatrical as it was meant to impact the emotions of the observer; the development of St. Peter’s square at the Vatican is an example of this. Music during this period was created to have an effect on the listener, both emotionally and otherwise.
Discuss Claudio Monteverdi’s career, briefly explaining his significance in the history of the madrigal and opera.
Monteverdi was the first composer to utilize opera to its fullest potential, as well as using dissonance in madrigals to highlight the dramatic aspects of the songs (he called this secunda practica). Monteverdi, skilled in vocal composition, wrote works such as L’Orfeo and L’Arianna, that were meant for court performance. In L’Orfeo, Monteverdi utilized strophic variation in his arias, as well as employing the recitative style; this opera also had a a mix of musical styles and used a larger group of accompanying instruments. The use of monody in the second act to push forth the momentum of the drama. In his later works, Monteverdi used monody to convey emotions such as anger through the concitato genere/ stile concitato. In his Venetian operas, Monteverdi used the arioso monody style to enhance characters.
How does the typical musical texture in the Baroque period differ from that of the Renaissance?
Monody was utilized in the baroque period; rather than the complex overlapping lines as seen in the virtuosic madrigals of the Renaissance, the Baroque period saw accomaniment support the melody. Often a continuo of instruments would support the melody. This was important, as the dramatic text of opera and its “child forms” could only be heard and understood if a single melody was performed over support.
Please define the following terms, explaining how each relates to the performance of music during the early Baroque period: basso continuo; continuo instruments; figured bass; realization
+The basso continuo was an ensemble of instruments including haut and bas instruments, usually a keyboard, that would accompany a melody. Important for the development of opera.
+ The continuo included viol, keyboard, cello, and bassoon, not at the same time but maybe one or two together. These instruments formed the accompaniment for much of the music seen in the early Baroque.
+Figured bass was a practical way to notate chords for keyboard instruments
How did the Renaissance ideal of writing music that could be performed by any combination of voices and instruments change in the seventeenth century (early Baroque)? What was the effect on composition?
In the seventeenth century it was no longer the case that any instrument or voice could play any music with the creation of idiomatic and virtuosic music for individual instruments or vocal parts. The music also become more “dissonant” and changed keys. Music itself was more complex in the change of rhythms and the rise and fall of melodic motions contrasted the harmonic, textural, and stylistic motives. Also compositionally counter point rules were broken intentially.
In what ways did performers in the Baroque era alter the written music? Why did they do this? What does this tell us about the roles of composer, performer, and notation?
Performers intentionally added embellishments to the score and changed it in other ways as well. Singers added cadenzas, arias were substituted or omitted from operas to better suit singers, church organ works could be shortened to fit the service. Basso continuo was another way the music could be altered. The bass line would be provided by the composer while the performer would improvise above it. In every respect the music was regarded as a script that could be adapted to suit performers. Performers were “co-composers”.
Describe the “invention” of opera. Discuss any precursors you feel are relevant, and include important individuals, composers, and early repertoire.
– The precursors to opera include pastoral dramas, intermedio and madrigal styles.
– It came about as a desire to revive Greek tragedy.
– The Florentine Camerata who acted as the “Caesars” of the day spread the idea of opera. The first operas were by Peri and Montverdi and included Dafne, L’Euridices, and L’Orfeo.
In what sense was ancient Greek tragedy a model for opera? Who were Girolamo Mei and Giovanni Bardi, and how did they promote the revival of Greek ideals that ultimately led to opera?
Greek tragedy was a model for opera in that it served as a standard of emotional power that could be matched with modern works. The emotions were the primary model. Mei and Bardi were men of the Camerata who helped progress Opera. Bardi hosted while Mei was a scholar who researched Greek drama and music. They promoted it by putting opera on the top of their agenda.
How did monody enhance musical theatre and how did it impact instrumental writing of the time. You may want to start your discussion with a brief description/definition of the term “monody.”

Monody includes all styles of accompanied solo singing in the 16 & 17th century. Monody, aria and recitatives made their way through both secular and sacred music and created an impact on both vocal and instrumental music. Monody made musical theater possible because it could convey in music many forms like narration, dialogue and soliloquy. It impacted instrumental music in that __________(? pg 315-16).

What important characteristics of opera took shape in Italy by the middle of the seventeenth century? How did opera in Rome and Venice at midcentury differ from Florentine operas of about 1600?
Recitative style was developed as a form of speech-like singing. It was helpful to express parts of the opera that could not be staged. Opera in Rome and vVenice was different from the Florentine Opera in that they believed drama and poetry was for the music and was focused on scenery, costumes, special effects and soloists while the Florentines saw music as a servant to poetry and drama.
How did Jewish synagogue music differ from Catholic and Lutheran church music? How did the new seventeenth-century developments affect Jewish music?
Jewish synagogue music is different from Catholic and Lutheran church music in that musical practices were passed down through oral cantillation and therefore there is no surviving music. Also, among the European faiths, Judaism was one of the most bound by tradition and therefore musical practices in synagogues had hardly changed for centuries. The developments of the seventeenth-century introduced polyphony to the synagogue services. Eventually through the efforts of humanist, scholar and rabbi Leona Modena, polyphony became a part of Jewish music. Salamone Rossi, a composer then introduced Italian elements of Monteverdi and Italian Jewish chant into the music as well.
What main types (genres) of instrumental music were practiced in the first half of the seventeenth century? How do these types compare to the forms used in the sixteenth century?
The main types of instrumental music include toccatas, fugues, fantastias and sonatas. The forms were different from the sixteenth century in that there was more of on emphasis on solo music and a deemphasis on genres dependent on vocal modes.
In what ways did the chamber, church, and instrumental music of the early seventeenth century influence later music? How did this music fare after 1650?
Chamber, church and instrumental music of the early seventeenth century influenced later music in that it set a pattern for several generations creating new genres such as cantata, sacred concerto, oratorio, sonata , partita, chaconne, passacaglia, and dance suite. The music of the early seventeenth century was rediscovered in the nineteenth and twentieth century and much of it has been published in scholarly editions and recorded.
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1504; Petrucci. Voice and lute/guitar. Fast and light. It is sectional, melody is repeated. This points early 16th century. NOT Through composed; pre-madrigal.

Il bianco e dolce cigno

1538; through composed; follows text for rhythm. Shows its an early madrigal due to simple vocal lines.

Solo e pensoso

Mid-madrigal; dissonances sneaking in. Shows its a mid-madrigal.

“Io Parto” e non piu dissi

1611; slow and builds to dissonance and fast. Vocal lines complex, meant for professional singers. Shows its a late madrigal.

Tant que vivray
de Sermisy

1527; French; Chanson (strophic unlike madrigal)

Revecy venir du printans
le Jeune,

Chanson; late 16th. Very French. Complex vocal lines show progression like madrigals.

As Vesta was

English Madrigal written for the Virgin Queen. 6 voices. Text painting extensively.

Flow my Tears

1600; Air form (for voice and lute); melody follows text. Certain chords were associated with specific emotions.

La morisque

1551; a dance. Has two repeated sections (binary form); become standard form for dances in the 17th.

Pavana Lachrymae

1600; pavane variations; virtuosic writing for harpsichord.

Canzoni septimi toni a 8
G. Gabrieli

1597; instrumenal piece. Meant for a consort of instruments. In dupal. characteristic abcbdbe form.

Cruda Amarilli

Madrigal that includes suspensions and passing tones; first words are title. 5 voices; heralded in secunda practica after Monteverdi was called out for being “unskilled”

Vedro ‘l mio sol

1590; cadences and ends of phrases; 1 voice first words are with title; lute.

Euridice Recitative “Per quel vago boschetto”

1600; from eurdice; instrumental opening; like spoken word; with harpsichord.


1607; strings voice sings fast and light; like spoken word.


1656; opera; recitative style in conversation.

Lagrime mie

1650s; cantata; first words are title; solo voice; inconsitant bass; changes style (aria, recit. etc.) according to text.

Saul, was verfolgst du mich

1650; choir and bowed strings; shows how emotions are imparted in music during this time period.

Toccata No. 3

1615; meant for the player’s pleasure; for harpsichord; sectional; cadence at every section meant it could be stopped at any time. Supposed to sound improvised. Virtuosic.

Sonata IV per il violin per sonar con due corde

1626; for violin and basso continuo; uses idiomatic double stops for violin; music is modeled off of arioso style from opera. Much more idiomatic than other music at this time.

What stylistic traits (timbres, scales, rhythms, textures, and forms) are essential to the traditional music of Malaysia? (5 points) How are these features interpreted through music of a contemporary Malaysian composer (of your choice)? (5 points)
Malay music is influenced by Indonesian, Thai, and Indian traditions. The music of Malaysia has traditional gamelan scales that were transformed to be similar to the Western equal temperament scales; as such, they could perform with Western enembles. There music is often played in Gamelans that contain many percussion instruments and double reeds. Accompaniment for all types of staged performance. It is more simplistic than the Indonesian gamelon. It is heterophonic. Yii Kah Hoe is a modern composer that uses western instruments in her ensemble and the melody is heterophonic in terms of the same melodic unit being transferred throughout the ensemble; it is canonic.
How is music perceived/what is music’s role in Middle East Cultures? Is it associated with upper or lower-class pursuits and how does it function within the Islamic faith?
Politically music is religious, privately it is entertainment. Music is modeled after Khondon (Koran singing) and is considered socially acceptable. Singing with meter and instrumental accompaniment is low-class. Music is used in Islam by singing the text of the Koran non-metered, unaccompanied. Instruments and dancing are kept away from some devout Muslims.
What musical features are consistent throughout the region “either Arabic or Persian”? Please describe or identify characteristics of the following features: timbre, scale, rhythm, texture and form.
Timbre: Raspy throat, nasal tone desired in all singers
Scale: Maqam system of scales, basis of all melodic creation
Rhythm: Virtuostic rhythms with trills, glissandos, and secondary notes
Texture: Monophonic, solo vocal music
Form: Suite, a grouping of individual pieces, most popular.
Describe Hinustani and Karnatic traditions. How is music taught in each region and what features are considered secret? What is the role of women in music making in each region and how does music interact with the Hindu faith?
– Raga: each scale is defined both by notes and rules
– North and South similar, but different enough to make one trained in one difficult to appreciate the other.
– North: melodious, smoother sensuous, more accesible
– South: ornamented, demanding melodies, require long familiarity.
– Some same songs, but different content
– In each region the women are dancers
– As persian culture took over, Gharanas began jealously guarding their music.
What musical features are consistent between Hindustani and Karnatic musics? Please describe or identify characteristics for each of the following features: timbre, scale, rhythm, texture and form.
Timbre: same instruments
Scale: use of rules for each scale
Rhythm: Both use free rhythm sections with no pulse
Texture: strong use of soloists
Form: After virtuosic settings, lyrical erotic piece is played for both.