Alleluia: A newe work
Anon; faburden; earlier than Fauxbourden (Early 15th Century); in Middle English; Female voices singing in recording
Quam pulcra es
Dunstable;Tenor is newly compsoed, related to text; No isorhthms or cantus firmus;Extremely connsonant ; Unlike Mauchaut, there is a definite sense o phrasing; In the ionian mode, but no V-I cadence as tonality used; pretty close to major
De plus en plus
Resolves to octaves at cadences
Tenor does own thang
Rarely dissonant music
Vocal range not defined in voice name, only on function within the piece (Tenor holds chant, contra rounds out botom)
Text is a Courtly love poem
Each line occupies 4 measures of music
Uses Fine d’amour
Resvellies vous
Du Fay; Written in 1423 in Italy at the court of Rimini and Pesaro for a wedding; Uses some Ars Subtilior, French, and Italian elements in this international style; French elements; Ballade form (aabc); Syncopation; Long Melismas; Free dissonances
Italian elements: Smooth cvocal melodies; Melismas on the last accented syllable on each line of text; Meter change; Ars Subtillior: Rapid notes with various divisions of the beat, including triplet type figures; English Burgundion style in its light feeling; Humanist text; Noble Charles Malatesta and Victoria are getting married; Patrons name is embedded in the music; Shows that the music lives beyond their life time, showing influence of life, focusing on the original;Points out that du Fay was well versed for sacred and secular music; Form was considered; Even secular music had form in mind
Christe, redemptor omnium
Du Fay; uses a Gregorian; between polyphonic sections; Early 15th Century (Early Renaissance); homophony at beginning; Fauxbourden;
(Missa) Se la face ay pale
Du Fay; ballade used for cantus firmus mass; (motto mass; imitation mass;) Gloria in mass form; earlier as it is not as full, third voice comes in a slower speed than the others so tenor still important; motto mass as well; tenor sings melody of Se la face ay pale in 3x slower, 2x slower, then exactly the same as the ballade.
Innsbruch, ich muss dich lassen
Isaac; Lied; Homorhythmic, simple homophony, recoginition of how the sonorities are being used in secular music as well; Similar to protestant hymns
Ave Maria…virgo serena
Josquin; Sounds like what is now thought of as a canon (round); Stops the canon and goes to homorhythm; Then voices interplay; Early popular motet; Clear tonal center; Gorgeous texture shift; Humanist plea to Mary at end of work; not from patron; Predictable 4 bar phrases; Change from homophony to polyphony
Missa Pange lingua
Josquinn; Kyrie in paraphrase mass borrowed from preexisting monophonic chant; uses point of imitation points to later Renaissance;
Mille regretz
Josquinn; Strophic; Every voice is essential, which is different than previous gen; Text painting (Some Italian required.); Regret with descending line; “painful…” descending line; Not a cantus dominated by other voices; Possibly not composed by Josquin; Phrygian cadences one in places
Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, and Ein feste Burg
Luther and Walter; Would have been sung by congregation; vernacular translation of the Latin text, some word changes so all could sing it easily; chordal, not polyphonic; By 1600, the organ played all parts, and the melody would be sung by the congregation; By this time, over 700 melodies existed
Sing Joyfully unto God
Byrd; For six voices and organ; A full anthem written for six voices; Includes points of imitation that follow one another; Imitation is handled freely
Pope Marcellus Mass, Credo
Palestrina; Late due to clear diction, definite phrasing, and complex 6 rhythms; in Latin; song became a legend as said to have saved polyphony in Catholic Church
O magnum mysterium
de Victoria;Mysterium has chromaticisms (1/2 steps); Magnum has large intervallic leaps
Men singing top voices; The important text is homophonic; Picardy third in- Suggests tonality
Cum essem parvulus
di Lassus;
Riddled with text painting; Boy sopranos; Singing about being a child; Mens voices begin to sing when an adult; Switches between adult and boy when concerning each other; Boy sings “as a child” or “childish things”; Riddle has suspensions; Charitas is put in over and over again to show how the greatest of the three is love; Face to face sung together; Religious motet; Germanish composer
Missa prolationonum
Ockeghem; 4 voices, 4 time signitures, two lines, made complex and beautiful full sound; This points to second half of 15th century
(1400-1600) meaning “rebirth”; it was a time of marked growth in the arts and science and quality of life; concept of humanism grew; middle class grew, and literacy improved; more people wanted to know how to perform and practice music leading to music that is more accessible to common person
Focus on value of life on Earth; grew in the 15th-17th centuries; seen from a revival of Greek and Roman knowledge, leading to increased progression of science, quality of life, which in turn lead to an improved quality of life
Contenance angloise
Presence of English music across Europe; from the English Qualito (English Quality); Used 3rds and 6ths above the bass that moved above the bass; in use for over 200 years in England by the 15th century
Burden is lowest voice or the bass line and fa is lowest voice An improvised method of performance with certain rules (parallel “6/3 triads [NON FUNCTIONAL]”, chant kept in middle, oter voices sung along in the harmony); consonant; one melody written only; improvisatory style of singing in which there is a fourth below and a third above the notes printed on the page and moved parallel to the melody
Inspired by English Music; technique when only cantus and tenor written out; parallel 6th movement primarily; phrases end on 8ve; 3rd voice, unwritte, sang in exact parallel 4ths below tenor; inicated by fauxbourdono wirren in music, many 6/4 sonorities; similar to faburden; Difference is that cantus and tenor is written out, but the third voice was improvised, otherwise sounded the same as faburden; used for technique primarily used for simple version of office chants (hymns, antiphons, psalms, and canticles
Plainsong Mass
Each movement of the mass is based on preexisting chant; Kyrie-Kyrie Gregorian chant for that day; Gloria-Gloria Gregorian chant for the day; no carry over material from section to section; nothing motivic carries over between masses
Motto Mass/Head Motive
Connective tool within renassaince masses; there was a motive at the beginning of each section, despite their differences after this motive; allowed listeners to identify each section of the mass; head motive is best example of a motto mass, but it could use some motive that repeats itself throughout
Cantus Firmus Mass
Every movement is coordinated with the tenor line being the same; tenor line is borrowed from some other work (sacred or secular); could be used in different rhythms between movements
Imitation Mass
Uses previously created polyphonic source in all voices
Paraphrase Mass
Borrowed from a single melody or chant; used in all voices of a polyphonic work; Josquin Missa Pange Lingua
A compositional feature that varies the rhythm with similar material repeated
Point of imitation
The same general materials are used over and over again, can be part of a larger polyphonic work, rather than being a strict cannon; Josqin-Missa Pange Lingua; a compositional style, not procedure. Pope Marcellus Mass Agnus Dei uses this as well.
Text depiction (painting)
Expressing the text directly through the shape or texture of the music; also known as text painting; Palistrina used this in the Pope Marcellus Mass. Something directly stated in the text
Text expression
More vague than text painting; eg love and consonance, evil and dissonance. Heard especially in de Lasso
Vernacular hymns used in Lutheran Church; used sacred and biblical, intended for entire congregation to sing. New form at this point in history.
What began as a theological dispute in 1517 became an all-out rejection of the Catholic Church; began with Martin Luther posting 95 theses on monestary door on October 31st; Lead to expansion and freedom of sacred music (EG Chorales and Metric psalms).
Martin Luther
(1483-1546) Professor of theology at Wittenburg; founder of Lutheran Church; composer; believed that one was saved through faith, not deed. Originator of the reformation. Music in Lutheran Church was for the congregation, sung in the vernacular, and biblical in nature; Music was in chorales.
Jean Calvin
(1509-1564); Faith alone saved was his belief; thought that some were predestined to damnation, and others for salvation. Removed decoration from services; used metrical psalms in church. Polyphonic settings existed for home use.
Metrical Psalm
Rhythmic, rhymed, strophic vernacular translation of biblical text based songs. Used in Calvaist Church.
Anglican Church
Third major protestant branch that came about in 16th century; developed in England. Had English as primary language; two major types of music used within, the Service (from Catholic liturgy); and the anthem (from a Latin Motet).
Polyphonic piece used in the Anglican Church; sung in English; Full anthem is unaccompanied choir. Verse Anthem employs one or more solo voices with accompaniment.
Organized response to the the Reformation by the Catholic Church. The result was the formation of the Council of Trent.
Council of Trent
1543-1563; Held in Trent; Elders and administrators of Catholic Church; organize a response to Protestantism to keep members from leaving; Chose to keep Mass in Latin; Kept trained choir; question if they should remove music from mass, but keep it
Describe countenance angloise, and its impact on continental composers during the early Renaissance.
The term was coined by Martin Le Franc
Countenance anloise is an English guise or quality
It was a form of polyphony
It frequently used harmonic triads and sixths often in parallel motion.
When used the melodies were simple, regular phrasing, mostly syllabus text-setting, and harmonic textures.
Le Franc praised Du Fay and Binchois saying they shaped the views of fifteenth century music.
Describe the careers of Guillaume du Fay (1397-1474), Josquin des Pres (1450-1521), and Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina (1525ish-1594). What features of life remained consistent between these three composers, and what aspects of their lives reflected their own unique situations?
Du Fay was the most famous composer of his time. He trained at the Cathedral of Cambrai on Northern France. His music survives in almost 100 manuscripts. He served 2 periods in the papal chapel.
Des Prez was the man. Few musicians enjoyed the renown as J did. Des Prez was a big influence during and after his time. Was known for Motets(text depiction and text expression) , masses (imitation and paraphrase) and chansons. Masses and Motets were Palestrinas best. his music became a model for later centuries of church music and of strict counterpoint. Palistrina saved church music and polyphony. Council of Trent hired him.
The three composers had an influence during and after their lives. The three composers worked in Italy and held high positions in the church. Much of their music is preserved. Du Fay and Palestrina had way more masses than des Prez
Describe the different types of polyphonic mass settings composed during the Renaissance period. What different ways were used to link the movements together? Use example from your listening to add depth and relevance to your discussion.
4 common forms of mass used in the Renaissance; the plainsong mass borrowed from Gregorian Chant; Motto mass borrowed a motive from an existing work (Se la face ay pale by Du Fay); imitation mass borrowed from a polyphonic work (Se la face ay pale is also this); paraphrase mass borrows a monophonic chant or piece which is used in all voices (Josquin used this in the Missa Pange lingua). Also cantus firmus mass which borrowed a single line for the cantus firmus from a sacred OR secular work.

Plainsong(nawm 47)
Composers would base each movement on an existing chant for that text.melodies were liturgical, making them appropriate.

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imitation(nawm 48)
This is where a mass imitates another polyphonic work by 1520 the imitation mass replace the cantus firmus mass as the norm
paraphrase(nawm 42)
Miss pange lingua is a good example of a paraphrase mass. Here instead of using a melody at the cantus firmus, paraphrasing is now using all 4 voices in parts or as a whole in each of the movement. Phrases from the him melody are now uses motives that are treated importance of imitation or sometimes in “homophonic declamation. BOTH IMITATION AND PARAPHRASE MASSES WERE POPULARIZED BY DES PREZ.

motto(nawm 37?)
When composers used the same melodic motive in one or all four voices this would be a head motive which was linked to a motto mass.

cantus firmus.( tenor mass)
Was where the head motive what is combined with another way of grouping together movements constructing each 1 around the same cantus firmus.
The greatest composers to write such masses we’re English(nawm 37)

Composers gradually included main themes of the KGCSAD (kyrie, Gloria, credo, sanctus, agnus die) which created a polyphonic mass cycle.

How was Gregorian chant developed and reworked in music of the fifteenth century?
Gregorian chant was developed and reworked in music of the fifteenth century the different forms of polyphonic masses as well as motets and chansons. The four main types of Masses in the fifteenth century often drew melodies and ideas from chants that were reworked into new compositions. In Josquin’s Missa Pange lingua, the chant melody is borrowed and used in all the voices of the mass.
Faburden and fauxbourdon have now replaced the older Gregorian chant style. Du Fay played a big role here.
Faburden was when in plainchant the middle voice was joined by in Upper voice that was a perfect for the above and a lower your voice singing almost entirely in parallel thirds before it.
Fauxbourdon was where only the Cantus and the tenor were written out hear voices would move mostly in parallel sixths and ending each phrase on an octave.
Describe the changes in musical style in Europe from 1450 to 1520. How does musical style of Josquin’s generation differ from that of Du Fay’s generation? What elements continued through this period?
Musical style between 1450 and 1520 changed in that the formus fixes was no longer used, but instead a growing interest in imitative and homophonic textures came about and there was a new focus on fitting music to words with appropriate declamation, imagery and expression.The music style of Josquin’s generation is different from Du Fay’s generation in that there are longer-breathed melodies, increased use of imitation and greater equality between voices and more frequent use of duple meter. However some of the elements that carried from Du Fay’s generation include the use of formus fixes, smooth, arching melodies, lightly syncopated rhythms, pervasive consonance, careful dissonance treatment and prominent thirds and sixths.
Describe the new attitudes and uses of religious music in the Protestant traditions, including the Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican churches. Please identify repertoire from your listening which reflects these changes.
Within the Protestant Reformation, leaders sought to include worshipers more through congregational singing. This meant that the music was more simple and was also presented in the vernacular rather than Latin. With this change came new forms of music for the different branches of Protestantism. The Lutheran Church relied on the chorale, the Calvinist Church used metrical psalms and the Anglican Church used the anthem and Service. An example of a chorale is found in NAWM 44a, Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland. An example of a psalter, or metrical psalm is found in NAWM 45b, Old Hundredth. An example of an anthem is found in NAWM 46, Sing Joyfully Unto God.
What is a chorale? How was it sung and by whom? What were the chief sources of tunes for chorales, and name an example from your listening list which was derived from a pre-existing tune.
The chorale was the most important form of music in the Lutheran Church. It is a congregational hymn consisting of a metric, rhymed, strophic poem set to a simple melody and rhythm sung in unison. The chief sources of tunes for chorales came from 1) adaptations of Gregorian chant; 2) existing German devotional songs; 3) secular songs given new words and 4) new compositions. An example of this is found in NAWM 44a, where Luther adapted the hymn, Veni Redemptor gentium into his own chorale, Nun komm Heiden Heiland.
What was the Council of Trent? When was it held, and what was its purpose? What matters relating to music were discussed, and what actions relating to music did the Council take?
Council of Trent held in Trent from 1525ish-1565ish (doing this all without book because I left it at home). It’s main purpose was to discuss the ever waning attendance in the catholic church, and some believed it best to do away with the music in the church. Some were concerned that the music was not helping the message of god get across. Palestrina’s style with emphasis on diction helped to bring the message across and help to save music in the church.
Describe Palestrina’s career. Why was his music important for later composers?
Palestrina was Italian, which is important with respect to location to catholic church. As a church musician, he composed many masses and motets, but also dabbled in Madrigal and secular music. He was internationally respected during his lifetime, and achieved legendary status when he died. He used variety of techniques in his composing, imitative, paraphrasing, free melodies. Emphasized diction in melodies, made them rhythmically varied and easy to sing. Voice lines very singable. Strict control of dissonance; very intentional with writing harmony. Text painting begins, such as on the latin word for Decend in the pope Marcellus credo which the line goes down.
Describe the musical style of Spain and its territories? How did Palestrina and Franco-Flemish traditions influence these composers?
Southern Spain at the time was heavily influenced by the middle east, which reflects in their musical style. Islamic relations were very open to other forms of worship, unlike their Catholic neighbors to the north. This disagreement in Spain eventually led to the Inquisition. The famous Spanish Composer Victoria was the first to master Palistrina’s style and wrote O Magnum Mysterium from this influence.
What ideals, philosophies, and theories were emblematic of the Renaissance period? Which aspects of Ancient Greek culture were applied to music during this epoch?
Humanism; Focus on value of life on Earth. ; Revival of Greek and Roman knowledge; Looking back at arts and philosophies-Looking to Opera; Sciences: From Middle East; Newton; Copernicus; Improved quality of life: Not education for masses, but have a focus on arts, music and literature; Especially literature; More people are becoming literate; Arts-Depth perception increases (“3-D paintings”); Dimensionality increases within music, creating more complex, greater polyphony, more voices singing; Composers takin more and more credit for their work; Church is still a HUGE part of society; Europe is rising up as a stronger political strength; Crucades ravished the middle east
What is humanism? What was its role in Renaissance intellectual life? What aspects of music did it influence, and how was its influence manifested? Why did Italy provide an ideal ground for Renaissance humanism as a movement? What were the new approaches to text-setting in music of the Renaissance? How do these approaches embody ideals of humanism?
Humanism: Focus on value of life on Earth. More people are becoming literate; Especially in Italy; Growing larger middle class of artisans; Great trading hub; Wealth grows; Wealthy house in each city state had an interest in arts, music, and literature; As literacy grew, so did want of literature; Arts; Text now took role in music, text painting and text depiction now used to create
How was patronage in the Renaissance similar to and different from patronage in the Middle Ages? How were professional musicians educated in the Renaissance?
Musicians still worked for Lords of houses and royalty, increased in frequency in areas such as Italy where important houses grew in number, and their lords wanted to focus on art to compete with each other (Such as Dukes of Savoy and Burgundy); music could provide them a place in history if their names mentioned (such as in Relles Vous by Du Fay); instrumentalists were recruited as well. Du Fay had power to leave his patrons. Professional musicians were trained in choirs as boys originally in churches or court chapels and then would travel to France to study until second half of 16th, but then to Italy thereafter die to rise of prominent houses; Women did not have this opportunity. The