Ancient Greek reed instrument, usually played in pairs. Had two pipes for two notes. Maybe played independently, maybe together. Possibly used as a drone. No reeds survive.
Used in ancient Greece. Plucked string instrument with a resonating sound-box, two arms, crossbar, and strings that run parallel to the soundboard an attach to the crossbar. Associated with Apollo. Made with turtle shell.
A large lyre, used in Greece for processions and sacred ceremonies. Normally played while th emusician was standing. Singers who played with it were kitharodes.
Consisting of a single unaccompanied Melodic line. Music until the 10th century where note-against-note polyphony began appearing in chant.
Music or musical texture in which a melody is performed by two or more parts simultaneously in more than one way, for example, one voice performing simply and the other with embellishments. Example is a singer performing with a plucked lyre or kithara. Epitaph of Seikilos.
Founder of Greek music Theory (d. ca. 500 BC). None of his writings survive, and his followers only exist in fragments quoted by later authors. Numbers were key to universe. Rhythms were ordered by numbers, each noe multiple of primary duration. Discovered the 8ve (2:1), fifth (3:2), and fourth (4:3)
Moral and ethical character or way of being or behaving. OR Character, mood, or emotional effect of a certain tonos, mode, meter, or melody. Greek thought music could influence listener. Epitaph touches on a balanced ethos as written in Mode 7, and has arching rhythm. Plato and Eristotle wrote about musical ethos and harmonia extensively.
Church Calendar
In a Christian Rite, the schedule of days commemorating special events. The Mass Ordinary would change based upon which day the Church Calendar it was. For instance, Viderunt Omnes is the gradual for Christmas.
Gregorian Chant
The repertory of ecclesiastical chant used in the Roman Catholic Church. Began from codification of liturgy and music under Roman leaders, helped by Frankish kings. Pope Gregory the Great was said to have been transcribed the piece by the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove. Late 7th-Early 8th.
Philosopher (ca. 480-524) was the most revered authority on music in the Middle Ages. Consul and Minister to the ruler of Italy. The Fundamentals of Music is his work. Saw music as a science of numbers, part of the quarrivium (four paths). Compiled book from Greek sources.
Guido d’Arezzo
(ca. 1025-1028). Widest read theorist after Boethius, with his Micrologus. Included the Guidonean hand and talked of organum. Hand made learning the music easier. Also created solmization, precursor to solfege of today. Did not have ti.
Church modes
System of assigning chants particular characteristic tones. There were eight modes, each having distinct final, range, and reciting tone. Intervalic relationship to surrounding notes is what distinguishes the final, not absolute pitch. Each mode had a plagal and and authentic. Plagal was deeper in range. Made learning chants easier. Complete by 10th.
Service of worship in the catholic church. Used music (chant) to communicate message. Commemorated the Last Supper. Proper of the mass contains text and melodies which will change mass to mass, but ordinary will not. The parts of the Mass Ordinary in order of performance are the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Prayers, Sanctus, Canon, Pater noster, Agnus Dei, and finally, the Ite, missa est.
Composers used the mass to develop composition and further the development of notation.
Mass Ordinary
Proper of the mass contains text and melodies which will change mass to mass, but ordinary will not. he parts of the Mass Ordinary in order of performance are the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Prayers, Sanctus, Canon, Pater noster, Agnus Dei, and finally, the Ite, missa est.
Mass Proper
Part of Mass that changed from mass to mass. Pieces performed changed for occasion. Featured more virtuosic music, as congregation not expected to sing. Composers wrote more and more complex music for the proper.
Series of eight services held in monasteries and convents. Went through all psalms in the course of a week. Also could be used to perform non-mass works such as Hildegard’s liturgical drama.
Mode of chant, where soloist alternates singing with choir or congregation. Used for Ordinary pieces so people could respond.
Two choir groups alternate. Used in mass proper.
Whole choir or congregation sings.
Singing one syllable per neum in chant performance. Generally not used for sections performed with congregation. Around 850 start with neums.
One syllable used with a melisma. Used for sections with short texts, such as the kyrie.
One syllable per tone. Used in congregation singing such as the credo.
An expansion of an existing chant by adding new words and music before the chant and between phrases, melody and melisma extension or addition, or adding solely new text, called prosula. Enlarged the mass, and allowed creativity within the chant. Usually performed by soloists. Flourished in monasteries in tenth and eleventh centuries. Almost banned by the Council of Trent (1545-1563) to standardize liturgy.
Hildegard con Bingen
Nun and opener of a convent. A seer, so she had access to higher status individuals in a way most women at the time did not. Wrote poems and composed songs. Music said to come to her from visions. 1098-1179
Southern French minstril-like performers an composers. Ventadorn composed this music. Trouveres preserved music after expulsion of troubadours by Pope. Sang mostly of love. Allowed in courts. Could be from different castes. Spoke occient. Middle Ages.
Court Love sung about by troubadours and trouveres. Unobtainable love, generally of different classes.
Troubadour-like performers of Germany that lasted through the nineteenth century. Palaestrinelied is an example.
Minstril-like performers of northern France. Spoke Old-French. Revered Trouveres. de la Halle was one. Robin m’aime is and example.
Fiddle; predecessor of the viol and the modern violin. Five strings tuned in fourths and fifths. Principal bowed instrument of middle ages.
A double reed middle ages instrument similar to the oboe.
Porative organ
Samll organ small enough to be caried or suspended by a strap. Single set of the pipes; one hand worked keys the other did the bellows.
A type of medieval instrumental dance; the most common extant in record. Has an open with an incomplete cadence, then a closed with a full cadence.Found in Le manuscrit du roi. thirteenth century.
Polyphony with two or more voices. Note against note polyphony. Several types including parallel, mixed, oblique, free and flourid. First talked of in Micrologus ca 1025-1028. In use before this.
Parallel Organum
Organal voice and principal voice were perfect fifths apart, first amount of polyphony. Principal voice stayed on the original part.
Oblique and Mixed Organum
One voice keeps a drone while the other plays the melody. Will have parallel motion while to avoid tritones.
Free Organum
Or note-against-note organum. The organal voice has more freedom, shown through florid (melismas above chant) and discant sections (movement together). Late eleventh century.
A polyphonic organal style where the voices tended to move at the same time; used during originally long sections of chant so that it could move temporally. Late 11th-early 12th.
Rhythmic modes
A series of six rhythmic patterns. Born from Notre Dame. Garlandia talks about these. There are different patterns of shorts (breves) and longs to form the patterns. Modes could change throughout piece to avoid monotany. Five could be used in the tenor with a different voice above. (ca. 1170-1250).
ca 1150s-1201. Canon at Notre Dame, and was a priest. Compiled the “Great book of polyphony”; Two voice setting for all of the major Feasts of the year; not extant. Wrote in duplum. Wrote a Viderunt omnes. Progressed the Notre Dame school. Used both florid and discant. Longest and most elaborate settings of chant to his day.
late 12th early 13th. Little known abuot him. Wrote in duplum, triplum, and quadruplum. Had his own viderunt omnes. Used voice exchange extensively. Most intricate music until this point.
Early 13th. Kept Latin chant in the tenor, and had different text in the upper voices. From the Notre Dame school. Used in both sacred and eventually secular settings. Extremely complex. Usually performed in elite settings.
Franco of Cologne
13th. Creator of Fraconian notation, where note shape denoted duration. Groundbreaking for notation. Shown in “The Art of Measurable Music” from ca. 1280.
Cantus firmus
What the tenor became. Introduced in ca. 1270.
From the Ars Nova movement in 14th. Extended the concept of rhythmic modes. There would be both color and talea (melodic and rhythmic patterns) that were repeated in different voices that were not easily distinguishable by the audience. Made learning and writing the music easier.
Guillaume de Machaut
ca. 1300-1377. Most important composer and poet of France in the 14th. Typifies Ars Nova music. Worked for royalty and for the church and wrote music about his life and travels. One of the first composers to collect his works in a manuscript and keep himself associated with the music; self-awareness as a creator.
Formes Fixes
14th. A form of music writing in the 14th. Included the ballade, rondeau, and virelai. Each had a distinct structure of rhythms and tones.
Ars subtilior
Style of polyphont of the late 14th or early 15th in Southern France and N. Italy. Extremely complex rhythm and melody; complexity not seen until 20th. Movement in contrasting meters. Allowed through advent of new notation of Modes and prolations.
Haut and Bas
Loud and soft instruments of 14th-16th. Haut: shawms, cornetts, and trumpets. Bas: harps, bielles, lutes, psalteries, portative organs, transvers flutes, recorders. Percussion in both.
Musica ficta
14th-16th. Non notation of accidentals in the music, inferred by performer. No solid system of annotations to avoid tritone. Not included because of this and might doubt skill of musician.
What is the earliest evidence we have of music making and what types of evidence exist from ancient times? What evidence exists from the Middle Ages and what types are missing?
Instruments exist from as far back as 36000 BCE (flutes) and cave paintings showing playing for
dancers, show prehistoric musical practices.

From ancient greek times, writings on musical thought and practice exist (such as those of Pythagoras followers, and those of plato and Aristotle).

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Actual music from this time is rare, as notation was very crude and rarely used, as music was mostly performed by wrote.

One rare example of ancient greek music is the Epitaph of Seikilos, which was carved in stone on a tombstone. It speaks of balance and moderation, and is written in a middle mode to exemplify this, which show the practice of ethos.

In the Middle Ages, as the chirstian church diffused across Europe, the music of the church grew. It was monophonic chant and was spread by wrote. As the church grew, and the Mass was standardized, the music became standardized, and notation such as neums grew. These manuscripts, hand copied, are evidence of the actual music.

In addition to manuscripts, writings about music exist, such as Guido’s Micrologus, which introduced some practical teachings of music, such as the guidonean hand and solmization.

Secular music did exist during this time, however, it was performed mostly by rote and is missing from the historical record.

Artists and writers of the Middle Ages and later periods imitated the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. What aspects of ancient music did they draw on? Why did musicians find it difficult to imitate ancient music?
Musicians drew on the concept of modes that set tonal relationships, and used these to compose the music of chants. The same modes were not used, but the concept carried on.

The concept that music could influence the listener’s behavior was also observed, and harmonies such as the tritone were avoided due to the connotation of the striking dissonance.

Music continued to learn music by rote into the middle ages, a practice of ancient times.

Music was thought of as a science through this time as well, as evidenced by the writings of Martianus Capella, where it was compared to mathematics. Boethius also commented on this.

Music still thought of as an object of knowledge, not a practical pursuuit, as told in the writings of Boethius

Musicians found it difficult to imitate the ancient music because after the fall of the Roman Empire, much of the music and writings on music were lost until they were returned by the crusades.

How has the music of chant been shaped by its role in the ceremonies and liturgy of the Roman church, and by the texts and the manner in which it has been performed? Use examples and show in what ways the musical characteristics of each are appropriate for its liturgical role, its text, and its manner of performance.
The music of Chant was mainly influenced by its role in the ceremonies and liturgy of the Church. The sections of the Mass were composed differently based upon their role. The sections of the Mass Ordinary did not change in text or tones, for example, because the congregation was expected to sing with the choir. Examples of this are early Kyrie, Sanctus, Gloria, Agnus Dei, and Credo. These pieces were set mostly so that one syllable had one tone, so that the congregation could follow the choir. This is syllabic text setting. If it was not set syllabically, the music had a small amount of text, and the melistmatic or neumtic setting allowed for elaboration and emphasis on this text.

The Mass Proper had texts that changed based on the day of the Church Calendar, and would touch on matters surrounding the celebration of the time year. The introit, Gradual, alleluia, offertory and communion all had music with them. Viderunt omnes is an example of a gradual meant for Christmas. These pieces were more complicated than those of the ordinary, because only the choir performed them, so they could be more difficult. They were set melismatically or neumatically, where syllables would have more than one tone. Additionally, soloists sang during the ordinary. As the non-proffesional congregation was expected to not sing these parts, it makes sense.

Additionally, in convents and monasteries had services throughout the day called the Office. There were eight services a day structured so that every psalm of the bible was gone through in a week.

Additionally, the office would be a place where non-Mass works could be performed, such as liturgical drama, Ordo virtutum, by Hildegard von Bingen.

Discuss instrumental music in the Middle Ages. What instruments were used? What examples do we have and why do these exist? What does not exist anymore and why?
Instrumental music of the middle ages was fairly limited, used mostly to accompany dancers.

Instruments such as the vielle (a precursor to the viol and modern violin), a drone instrument known as the hurdygurdy, the reeded shawm, the psaltery is an ancient cousin of the piano, the transverse flute no key flute, trumpets, pipe and tabor, and bagppe existed as well as types of organs.

Few actual instruments exist, but depictions in art and writing can be seen.

Caroles from france (a form of social dance), 12th-14th, are the earliest notated instrumental music.

Instrumental music itself was mostly accompaniment to dance, such as the French estampie. The estampies from Le manuscrit du roi are example of the estampie.

Few examples of this music exist, though, and usually as a melody. The rest of instrumentation has been lost, as it was mostly improvised.

Talk about fin-amors- with whom is this term associated, and how was it used?
Fine amour, or courtly love, was a concept of unrequitted and impossible love, often with the singer being of a lower social status than his or her love.

Term is associated with the Trouveres and Troubadours. Tradition began in 11th century. These composer-musicians often sang about this courtly love in their songs and poems. Though their songs did not always use this topic, occasionally they spoke of politics or even satire, it is this subject that they are most known for.

An example of fin-amors is Ventadorn’s Vei la lauzeta mover, which speaks of his love as being forbidden to love him, showing the social divide between lover and loved.

Describe significant features in the evolution of polyphony (as we understand it). If possible, include general dates (centuries) and regions, and any theorists or composers who were influential.
Until the tenth century music was nearly all monophonic.

Early organum, an early type of polyphony, began to develop at this point in the Church and was first described in the early eleventh century in Guido’s micrologus. Organum was a style where two voices sang either in parallel perfect intervals (parallel organum) or one voice kept a drone and the other sang the chant (oblique organum). Eventually, oblique organum allowed for alteration of the drone to avoid tritones (mixed organum).

The late 11th saw free organum, which had notes against notes that allowed for more freedom in the organal (upper) voice.

By the early 12th century, Aquitanian polyphony (name for the duchy of Aquitaine in SW France) where there were two main types of polyphony, discant where the voices moved together, and florid organum, where the duplum (upper) voice sang melismatically above the tenor who held the original chant.

In the 13th, Notre Dame composers such as Leonin and Perotin greatly expanded upon this polyphony by creating intricate works for the church. Each has a Viderunt omnes for the Proper that is complex. The creation of rhythmic modes allowed for more voices to be added (stay together) and Perotin had three and four voice pieces.

From this, as rhythmic notation became more complex, thanks to advents of shape determining duration by Franco of Cologne, complex musical forms such as the motet evolved where each line could move independently, and complex polyphony could exist. From here, the ars nova, ars subtilior, and trencento created extremely complex polyphony, such as the motets of de la Halle and the music of Mauchaut.
The Notre

Describe different types of Latin song in the Middle Ages. Where would each type have been performed and by whom?
Chant was performed in the middle ages in Churches, monasteries, and convents and was used in worship during Mass and the Office.

Sequences and tropes were added to the chants and expanded the chants in melody or text, tailoring them to their associated time in the Church Calender.

Liturgical drama, such as Ordo virtutum by von bingen, were performed in the Office.

Latin songs such as the versus and conductus were normally sacred and sometimes attached to liturgy, andwere performd outside the church. Sometimes used for special occasions, but other times as satire. Goliard solngs are an example. The topics covered were not always sacred,but could include moral themes, and celebrations of earthly pleasures. These were meant for an educated audience.

What currents in religion, politics, and literature helped to make the fourteenth century a secular age?
Scandals in the church such as the the Babylonian Captivity of the papacy, leading to the Great Schism in the Church, lead to criticism of the church.

Additionally, war and plague, including the Black Death lead to less concentrated populations and therefore the rise of more heterogeneous beliefs.

A rising belief of a separation of Church and state and the rise of humanistic philosophy, that people should make the best of their time on Earth, all lead social change of a more secular age.

Describe significant features in the evolution of rhythmic notation (as we understand it). If possible, include general dates (centuries) and regions, and any theorists or composers who were influential.
Rhythmic notation began in the Notre Dame school with rhythmic modes in the 12th century, which were six patterns of rhythm notated at in the score.

Then in the late 13th, Franco von Cologne created a system where the shape of the note influenced the duration of the note, very similar to the system used today.

This then evolved in the Ars Nova period of the late 13th to include isorhythms and the breakdown of the shortest duration into an even shorter sub part, known as the minim, allowing for more complex rhythms. The advent of duple was also created in this time.

Discuss the significance of the Notre Dame School. Name individual composers, works, genres associated with this institution.
Notre Dame is responsible for many innovations in music.

Out of Notre Dame came the system of Rhythmic Modes.

In the 13th, Notre Dame composers such as Leonin and Perotin greatly expanded upon this polyphony by creating intricate works for the church. Each has a Viderunt omnes for the Proper that is complex. The creation of rhythmic modes allowed for more voices to be added (stay together) and Perotin had three and four voice pieces.

The conductus also came from Notre Dame, which were two to four voices all singing the same text, such as Ave virgo virginum.

Motets were also developed in the early 13th century, such as Factum est Salutare/Dominus.

Epitaph of Seikilos
Agnus Dei
Ordo Virtutum
von Bingen

Liturgical drama; men and women singing (not historical). Drone in back.

Can vei la lauzeta mover

Troubadour song; court love; saved by trouveres; not in latin

A chanter
de Dia

Court love, troubaritz, woman’s solo voice


Song of the crusade; minnesinger

La quatre estampie royal
Le manuscript du roi

Instrumental; a dance; not many survive beyond a melody

Jubilemus, exultemus

Shows discant and florid organum above the tenor. Newly composed tenor.

Viderunt Omnes (Duplum)

Duplum voices, complex setting, from the time period

Viderunt omnes (quadruplum)

4 voices, very complex, more rhythmic

Ave virgo virginum

Conductus; style from notre dame. 13th.

De ma dame vient/Dieus, comment parroie/Omnes
de la Halle

Double Motet; no longer keeping the same repeating rhythms; made use of Franconian notation; two secular texts above the cantus firmus; not clause

In arboris/Tuba sacre fidei/Virgo sum

Ars nova; complex, uses isorhythms; motet; color and talea

Messe de Nostre Dame

Very complex polyphony; first complete ployphonic setting of the mass set by one person. Performed in Reims from 1360s into the 14th century. Uses a contratenor to expand tenor range, Alternates chant and polyphony in a pattern of 3s. Uses isorhythms such as talea and color.

Non avra ma’ pieta

A ballata; three voices; female voices; melismatic at beginning and end. One of 140 ballate by Landini. Many trebel dominated