Gregorian Chant 

named after pope gregory

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celebration of the holy communioin 


Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, sanctus, agnus dei

example: Missa something by: Dufe 

St. Agustine
Patriarch that recognized the power of music
emperor that unified liturgy and music, but also everything
indicate pitches or groups of pitches in a chant
divine office
series of services held at specified times: featured psalm singing
Proper vs. Ordinary

Ordinary: everyday

Proper: specific days 

syllabic, neumatic, melismatic
one, 2-6, many notes
responsorial vs. antiphonal
solo and choir, two groups of performers
melismatic ending of alleluia
psalm tones
melodic formula used to recite psalms according to eight tones
plainchant sung before a psalm or chant

fanalis: ending pitch in a mode

ambitus: range of a mode

authentic: range is octave above fanalis

plagel: fifth above fourth below

psalmisation: guidonian hand
ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la: way to learn psalmisation
entire range of available pitches
hexachord: hard vs. soft

hard= B natural

soft= B flat

neutral= no B

W, W, H, W, W 

Musica Ficta
performers determine which notes are sharp/flat in performance
troping: prosula
adding notes and/or words to existing chant: just text
liturgical drama, Hildegard Von Bingen, ordo vir tutum
drama in a mass, first woman to do this, her most famous piece about the devil
original plainchant with added voice
parallel vs. melismatic
together, one is faster than the other
St. Martial- Aquitanian Polyphony
center for the production and collection of medieval chant and polyphony
Notre Dame organum: measure vs unmeasured
two voices move about same speed: one holds other melismaticizes
Leonin and Perotin

perotin was leonin’s student, added triplum and duplum

notre dame;

magnus liber organi
great book of organum by leonin and perotin
rhythmic modes, ligatures
modes are made from ligatures which are groups of 2+ notes
Clasula/Substitute clasula
substitute for part of organum
motet/polytextual motet
new text to existing clasula, secular
metered poem used in music
mensural notation
notes shapes determined duration
fraconian vs. petronian
long notes vs. short notes in mensural notation
parisian chanson

french; song lighter and chordal, homorhythmic, vertical sonorities

Sermisy and Janequin were big

secular vocal composition for multiple voices
three ladies of ferrara
group of singers virtuosic
madrigal sub genre less literary and less elaborate
tenorlied: senfl
german, tenor song, secular
meistersinger: sachs
tradesmen/craftsmen who sang
villancico: milan
spanish song at this time
English Madrigal
english version, Morley wrote some
Lute Song: Dowland
strophic madrical notated for the lute
martin luther brought about the musical aspect of the change
chorale: walter
congrational singing of hymns
anthem- full vs. verse:byrd
english motets chorus: chorus and solo
council of trent met to revise the catholic church
palestrina: missa papae marcelli
accepts thirds and sixths as consonant
any arrangement of existing music for strings or keyboard
melody and variations, spanish
composition seeks out specific mode or theme
freely composed work unrelated to anything else
free flights of imaginative composition
dance music: susato and praetorius
composers of dance music
syntactic form vs. paratactic form
central idea is presented and varied: each new section presents a new idea
mannerism, musica reservata
term from art history to describe sculpture and painting
orlande de lassus
writing in musical mannerism