sang at the same time
overlap between voices singing slightly different versions of the same melody
neutral syllables
cultural norms that were taught by song/story
how were songs usually passed in native american culture
oral tradition
Robert Miribel
combining tradition with modern music in the native american world
intertribal gathering
percussion instrument with groves notched out of it that are rubbed with a stick
Carlos Nakai
classically trained trumpet player who became fascinated with navajo flute sounds
Louis Ballard
composer, music educator, and music journalist
Spanish Traditions
“mission” music
spanish hymn
relate the unofficial history of Mexican or Mexican American communities to their heroes
story telling songs
tex-mex music
Vernacular Music
common language music
British Traditions
used fiddle
sheet music written and printed on very large sheets of paper
Bunt Stevens
Important in European Tradition (used fiddle and foot stomp)
“Barbara Allen”
Example of a Folk Ballad
African Traditions
Field Holler; Ring-Shouts; Work Song
Sailors work songs
Field Hollers
loud; rhythmically flexible; emotionally expressive chants or cries sung by one person. (Ex: Sad Whoa song and Father’s Field Call)
Ring Shout
religious services or camp meetings; formed a ring and shuffled energetically to the singing of a spiritual
Work Songs
accompanied such rhythmic tasks as rowing, hoeing, or chopping trees (often improvised) (Ex: Hammer Ring)
Freedom Songs
Ex: No More Auction Block for Me
African gourd instrument
a repeated tone of constant pitch
craziness with gasps and raspberry
Psalm Tunes
Religious music
Martin Luther
Protestant Reformation- wanted church music in the vernacular
metered and rhymed psalm verses printed in this book
Geneva Psalter
earliest psalter
Sternhold and Hopkins
Puritans Psalter
Bay Psalm Book
first printed book in the US; drew melodies from favorites and edited them;
Ainsworth Psalter
Pilgrims Psalter
from Bohemia and Maravia and came here to escape persecution; They believed music was part of their everyday education. Knew their theory. Settled in GA, NC, then founded Bethlehem, PA
John Antes
Maravian composer; Gorgeous 4 part harmony.
Through Composed
No repetition
Great Awakening
renewed interest in religion and music
Line Out
Sing line by line and repeat
Singing School Movement
traveling “singing schools”. Eventually became the First New England School of Composers
William Billings
Singing School Master; Wrote The New England Psalm Singer- printed by Paul Revere

When Jesus Wept

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Fuging Tune
First Section in Harmony then the second section is a canon
Thomas Jefferson
accomplished violinist
Program Music
Music that tells a story (instrumental)
Chamber music
began with the secular music
Ben Franklin
nationalistic views about music; invented the glass harmonica or armonica
Francis Hopkinson
1st Secretary of the Navy; originated “art songs”
Fife and Drum Corps
Originated during the Revolutionary War; flute and drums; modeled after British bands; they were at the front of the lines and it was unwritten that you didn’t go after them. The songs had different meanings to the troops such as waking up/ moving/ coordinating them in battle

Ex: Yankee Doodle