Blue Rider
magazine started by Schoenberg and other named after a Kandinsky painting
modernist group with members including Stravinsky and Ravel
period in art and music characterized by a goal of capturing the moment or current feeling
period following impressionism, very unrealistic
Paris and Vienna
these were two centers of avant-garde music
type of art that seeks to express feeling by separating art from realness
pentatonic scale
scale of 5 notes that can be played on the black keys
whole tone scale
scale consisting of an octave divided into 6 whole steps
octatonic scale
scale of 8 alternating half and whole steps
quarter tone scale
all pitches of the chromatic scale plus those in between
12 tone method of composing consisting of a 12 tone row or series which is a fixed ordering of the chromatic scale
holy trinity of music
melody, harmony and tonality
Three Nocturnes
piece written by Debussy in ABA’ form (Clouds is from this)
Paris Conservatory of Music
school where Debussy and Ravel studied
Madame von Meck
Debussy’s patron
Children’s Corner
set of piano pieces Debussy wrote for his daughter
How did Debussy die?
hard edged avant-garde, Neoclacissim
description of Stravinsky’s style
The FIrebird
Stravinsky’s first ballet
Rite of Spring
ballet written by Stravinsky and choreographed by Nijinsky, depicts the fertility cults of prehistoric Slavic tribes
this occurred at the first showing of the Rite of Spring
city where Stravinsky is buried
who pioneered the “emancipation of dissonance”
city where Schoenberg grew up
Transfigured Night
Schoenberg’s best known work
Schoenberg, in middle age
developer of the 12 one serial system
Los Angeles
city that Schoenberg moved to in WWI
school the Schoenberg taught at
Maurice Ravel
composer born in south of France, moved to Paris, mother was Basque
rare brain disease
how did Ravel die?
Gershwin and Chaplin
who did Ravel meet in his one trip to America
Piano Concerto in G
piece written by Maurice Ravel for piano and small orchestra, in very free classical concerto form
parallel chords
what technique, also used by Debussy, does Ravel employ in his Piano Concerto in G
Bela Bartok
Hungarian composer, child prodigy, teacher, theorist
set of 153 graded easy to hard piano pieces that introduced many new composers to modernism
folk music
what did Bartok integrate into his pieces
Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta
informal symphony written by Bartok
second movement of Music for Strings… is in this form
Aaron Copland
America’s leading composer of his generation, very nationalist, son of Russian Jewish immigrants
Nadia Boulanger
Copland’s teacher
main influence of Copland
Leonard Bernstein
one of Copland’s students
Appalachian Spring
ballet by Copland; a pioneer celebration in spring around a newly built farmhouse in the Pennsylvania Hills
Martha Graham
choreographer of and dancer in Appalachian Spring
Section 1
this section of Appalachian spring depicts a landscape at danw
Section 2
this section of Appalachian Spring depicts a bride and farmer husband celebrating their new house with a square dance
Section 5
this section of Appalachian Spring employs variations on a Shaker hymn
Simple Gifts
name of the Shaker hymn Copland uses in Appalachian Spring
Section 6
this section of Appalachian Spring is like a prayer, returns to landscape music
Romantic music and Wagner’s letimotivs
film music was characterized by which historical sound
Sergei Prokofiev
Russian child prodigy who became a concert pianist, conductor and composer, had to write for Stalin
director of Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
movie with score composed by Prokofiev, depicts a Russian culture hero uniting the country against the Germans
Beethoven and Wagner
favorites of Nazi Germany
Bartok and Schoenberg
two composers who fled because of the Nazis
composer who grew up under Soviet Communism
2nd phase of modernism
period of even more extreme modernism and serializing
musique concrete
french term for sounds of real life used in music
synthesizers and computers
forms of electronic music first used in the 2nd phase of modernism
In C
a piece by Riley that is characteristic or minimalism and the new time and rhythm breakthroughs of the 2nd phase of modernism
chance music
music where certain elements specified by the composer are left to chance
Gyorgy Ligeti
post war avant-garde composer from Hungary
Budapest Academy of Music
school where Ligeti studied
Lux aeterna
piece for 16 solo singers and chorus by Ligeti
2001: A Space Odyssey
movie that used Ligeti’s Lux aeterna
El Nino
minimalist oratorio by John Adams that depicts a modern version of Handel’s Messiah
Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz
author of the Spanish poem used in Adams’s El Nino
cultivated music
music which has been brought into the country and consciously developed
vernacular music
music we sing and hear naturally in our native tongue
American group that disapproved of music
William Billings
noted as America’s first composer
hymns and fuguing tunes
type of music WIlliam Billings wrote
George Templeton Strong
man that left diaries of all the music he heard in America
Heinrich and Gottschalk
first composers from American who gained worldwide renown
minstrel shows
shows where white actors performed music in blackface
call and response
musical technique brought to America from West Africa
folk songs that came into being outside of an established church
folk songs that came into being outside of an established church
modern music characterized by improvisation and breaks and influenced by black folk music
back beat
beat where the emphasis is on the second beat rather than the first (one TWO one TWO)
bass syncopation
derived from african drumming, accents are moved just a fraction of a beat ahead to give the music swing
the blues
a category of black folk song whose subject is loneliness
12 bar blues
blues where same stanza is repeated, aab
Sippie Wallace
blues and jazz singer who got her nickname from a childhood lisp
gospel music
ecstatic choral singing stemming from evangelical churches
If You Ever Been Down Blues
piece composed by G.W. Thomas and performed by Sippie Wallace and Louis Armstrong
If You Ever Been Down Blues
piece composed by G.W. Thomas and performed by Sippie Wallace and Louis Armstrong
New Orleans
city where Louis Armstrong was born
Louis Armstrong’s nickname
type of music reminiscent of but more carefully written than jazz, performed by big bands
Conga Brava
piece written by Duke Ellington and Juan Tizol
Edward Kennedy Ellington
Duke Ellington’s real name
Washington DC
city where Ellington was born
Cotton Club
white club in Harlem where Duke ELlington and his Famous Orchestra played
Presidential Medal of Freedom
honor awarded to Duke Ellington later in his life
Prelude No. 1
piece by George Gershwin that recalls Romantic Miniatures while using a blues scale and elements of Jazz
George Gershwin
composer born in NYC who wrote many hits with his brother Ira
Rhapsody in Blue
Gershwin’s most famous piece
song plugger
job Gershwin had, played new pieces for people thinking about buying them
part of opera that is half music, half recitation
city that called itself the Most Serene Republic
magnificence and extravagance
ideals of the Baroque era
the Gabriellis
most important composers in Venice in the Baroque era
jeweler’s term for large pearls of irregular shape
definite, regular and insistent
what were rhythms like in the Baroque period?
how many different rhythms were usually heard in a Baroque piece?
bar lines
what musical notation device was used for the first time in the Baroque era
basso continuo
bassline played by an organ, harpsichord or other chord instrument
ground bass
music constructed from the bottom up based on a harmony that is repeated in the bass instrument
basso ostinato
another word for ground bass
the major/minor system was developed during which era
most characteristic musical form of the Baroque era
extended piece for a solo singer
Claudio Monteverdi
opera composer of the Baroque era who first worked in Mantua
short aria like fragment
Henry Purcell
originally an organist at Westminster Abbey, became a great English opera composer
a group of dances
a piece that employs variations on a single theme
sectional pieces in which each section repeats certain musical elements while others change around them
Girolamo Frescobaldi
foremost organ virtuoso of the Baroque Period
free formed, typically organ pieces meant to capture improvisation
more rigorously organized Baroque organ pieces
a set of variations of a brief set of chords with a repeating bassline (aka ground bass or basso ostinato)
german word for table music
country where opera was invented around year 1600
walking bass
bass part that moves in absolutely even notes
orchestra and a keyboard instrument
instruments most commonly used in the Baroque era
Baroque melodies tend to be _________
bass part that is always linked to a set of chords but is not explicitly written
a self contained section of music that is part of a larger work
a typical Baroque concerto has this many movements
orchestral music that typically starts the music off and repeats throughout
Antonio Vivaldi
composer known as the red priest because of his hair
this composer worked at a Venetian orphanage for girls
fuga (running away)
what latin term does the word fugue come from and what does it mean
in this part of the fugue, all the voices present the subject in a orderly manner
subject entries
the part of a fugue where the subject is repeated in different forms
part of a fugue where new material accompanies the subject
term for when one subject overlaps another in time
fugal technique where notes are multiplied or divided, usually by 2
fugal technique where the intervals in the subject are reversed
passages of music separating subject entries in a fugue
a a b b
binary form (ab formation?)
French overture
a substantial piece of music introducing a play, opera, or ballet
opera seria
serious opera with plots from history or myth
term for the writer of the words in an opera
secco recitative
term for recitative with continue accompaniment
a b a
da capo form (ab formation?)
castrated singers
most famous castrato
an opera on a religious subject presented in concert form
church cantata
a piece of moderate length performed in the church
term for a Lutheran hymn
gapped chorale
a chorale where the melody is given in spurts
chorale prelude
an organ composition incorporating a hymn
second half of the 18th century
when did the classical style emerge
Carl Phillip Emmanuel Bach
the most important pioneer of the Viennese classical style
Joseph II
the golden years of the Viennese classical were under he reign of which enlightened ruler
during the Viennese Classical era, Vienna was the capital of this empire
half party, half seminar popular in the Viennese classical era
Viennese Classical
concerts first became popular during this era
Oxford (1748)
the first concert hall was built here in this year
flexible rhythm, changeable dynamics, tone color, uncomplicated melodies, mainly homophony
characteristics of Classical music
true or false, in classical music, themes are repeated immediately after their first appearance
a large concert piece for orchestra
first movement of a symphony is always in this form
minuet and trio form
third movement of a symphony is always in this form
sonata or rondo
4th movement of a symphony is usually in one of these forms
large and diverse part of a symphony where the music is presented
part of a symphony where contrasting themes and keys are used to heighten tension
resolution of a symphony where the first theme is hear again in the tonic key
Salzburg, Austria
city where Mozart was born
Mozart’s father
Constanze Weber
Mozart’s wife
Constanze Weber
Mozart’s wife
Mozart’s sister
Viennese classical musician who didn’t come from a musical family and started as a choir boy at age 8
family that Haydn worked for for most of his life
obscure instrument that Haydn wrote a lot of music because his employer liked it
true or false: Haydn died in obscurity without ever gaining recognition for his works
minuet form
stylized dance popular in the classical era, aabb, also called ternary form
rondo form
form used mainly for light closing movements during the classical era
style developed in the classical era originally for private performances
double exposition form
extended variant of sonata form where the orchestra exposition does not modulate
string quartet
2 violins, viola, cello
chamber music
music designed to be played in a room by a small group of players
opera buffa
funny, more realistic operas
city where Beethoven was born
Heilgenstadt Testament
statement Beethoven wrote about how he was going deaf
the original name of Beethoven’s Eroica
a fast rushing movement in triple meter, means joke in Italian
they named the period themselves
what is characteristic about the Romantic period
pieces encouraged natural human feelings rather than artificial constraints, emphasis on the supernatural, more personal style to each artist
characteristics of the Romantic era
term for when rhythm is handled flexibly in musical performance, means robbed time
a piece that lasts a few minutes and conveys a particular emotion
program music
non vocal music written in association with some literary work
german word for song
Romantic genre that consisted of piano and text based off a poem
greatest master of lied
when a song uses the same music for all the stanzas
through composed
when each stanza has its own music
typhoid fever
what did Schubert supposedly die from
song cycle
a group of songs written with a common poetic theme (Romantic)
Romantic piano virtuoso, bipolar, married to another pianist, wrote lieder in the style of Schubert
he injured his fingers while trying to lengthen them
why did Schumann’s virtuoso career end?
character piece
a short piano piece that portrays some definite mood or figure
term that means “night piece”
where did Chopin spend most of his life?
where was Chopin born?
concert overture
conceptual piece never intended for theater, made famous by Mendelssohn
master of the program symphony
first great composer who played no standard instrument
Giuseppe Verdi
greatest Romantic italian opera composer
opera by Verdi, one of the most frequently performed, commissioned for a new opera house in Cairo after completion of the Suez canal
opera house in this city performs only Wagner
city where Wagner was born
music drama
new type of more theater heavy opera developed by Wagner
a musical motive associated with some person, thing, or symbol in the drama
government clerk
Tchaikovsky’s first job
symphonic poem
a one movement orchestral composition with a program
Nadezha von Meck
Tchaikovsky’s patron who he never met
cholera epidemic
how did Tchaikovsky die?
true or fale: Du Fay was active in the court of Charles III of Naples
true or false: Josquin desprez is credited with “saving” polyphony
who is the playwright associated with Kemp’s jig
true or false: Palestrina is credited with “saving” polyphony
true or false: Palestrina lived during the Ars Nova
true or false: Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia. is a sample of a psalm tone
it abolished the Gallican right
what was the topic of Charlemagnes Admonito Generalis?
this was the earliest type of polyphony
he was the head of the english army which was going to put down uprising
why did the Duke of Bedford go to France?
elaboration, clear declamation and composed homophony
3 important elements of the High Renaissance style
counter reformation
the Pope Marcellus Mass was written during this era
flute, harpsichord and violin
the 3 solo instruments featured in the Brandenburg concerto
Glen Gould
pianist who made the Goldberg variations famous
virtuosity, dance, and vocal music
sources of instrumental music during the Baroque era
the form of Dido’s lament
period that Henry Purcell lived in
city that Bach lived in from 1723 on
allemande, courante, sarabande, gigue
required dances in the standard keyboard suite
true or false: Don Giovanni is an oratorio
in his later years, Haydn wrote two major works in this genre
Edison and von Berliner
who pioneered recording?
oldest style of notated music
Pope Greogy
gregorian chants named after this person
Byzantine chanting
this type of chanting has an underlying drone and ornamented vocal line
Melchite chanting
this chanting has a changeable drone, sounds even more middle easter but is still christian, ornamented vocal line
psalm tones
simplest kind of chants, sing a text on a single note
psalm tone
Vere dignum is this type of piece
prose text sung in association with a psalm
more than one melodic line at once
parallel organum
earliest notated form of polyphony
passages of many notes set to a single syllable of text
discant style
style with no long held notes, voices move together, plainchant line is metrically structured against the upper line
this appears at the end of a section of melismatic organut
clausula with words
a piece with one line of plainchant while lines above have their own texts and melodies
papal schism
event that occurred in the 14th cent when popes were crowned in both Avignon and the Vatican
Guillaume de Machaut
leading figure of the ars nova
a technique of writing successive passages using identical rhythms but different melodies
means hiccup, sounds like a quick stutter
traveling musicians from the south of france
traveling musicians from the north of france
traveling musicians in Germany
traveling musicians in spain
language that troubadors wrote in
most common type of early instrumental music
means false bass, brought to France by English armies
Netherland/Burgundian school
starting place of the renaissance
a plainchant with added notes set to a regular meter
kyrie, gloria, credo, sanctus, agnus dei
parts of the mass