Age of absolutism
believed in the divine right of kings, Baroque
Age of Science
Science took off, stimulating technology and philosophy
Baroque dualism
age of absolutism/science, questioning everything vs. questioning nothing, music – extravagant vs. rigid, structured
Institutions where 18th century composers worked
Church, court, opera house
Style features of Late Baroque music
Complex, complicated; few dynamic contrasts; orchestra = primarily strings
Why did late Baroque composers compose?
composed for a living to satisfy a boss
Baroque concerto
large scale composition for orchestra and solo instruments
Concerto grosso
large scale composition for orchestra and GROUP OF solo instruments
Ritornello form
Late Baroque form based on recurrences of ritornello
Master of baroque concerto, wrote for self, 400 concertos, *violins
J. S. Bach
Fugue (polyphonic piece for multiple voices, Brandenburg concertos concerto grosso, Baroque composer 20
Elements of a fugue
Subject, exposition, episodes
Improvised solo passage within a larger piece
Dance suite
Collection of misc. dances
Opera seria
Serious opera, plots derived from history and mean to arouse emotion
words of an opera written separately
Da capo aria
an aria is ABA form (very dramatic)
Julius Caesar opera, Baroque era composer, Messiah oratorio
Church cantata
musical sermin
Lutheran hymns
opera about a religious subject (Hallelujah Chorus)
Classical style
Simpler melody, major dynamics, orchestra includes much more
Classical era, idea of open-mindedness, support of the arts was huge, Emperor Joseph II loved comical opera (opera buffa); music – created atmosphere for creative musical composition
Intent of classical era music
expected to please rather that instruct, impress, or express like in the Baroque era
F. J. Haydn
Classical era, father of the symphony, Symphony 95 sonata form
W. A. Mozart
Movements of symphony, Requiem (died during the creation), Classical era concerto K-622
Opera buffa
comical opera; best = Mozart (The Magic Flute, Queen of the Night)
Musical elements of Classical era music
Baroque dynamics: no variation
Classical dynamics: much variation (crescendos, decrescendos)
Baroque orchestra: strings
Classical orchestra: strings, brass, percussion (tympani), and woodwinds
Baroque melody: very complicated
Classical melody: simple
large impressive concert piece for orchestra
Sonata form
A (exposition) B (development) A’ (recapitulation – recap of exposition); 1st movement in symphony in this form of classical era
Classical variation form
Repetition of a clearly defined theme
Minuet form
Stylized dance in triple meter at moderate tempo
Rondo form
musical form consisting of 1 main theme alternating with other themes
Composition for only 1 or 2 instruments
Classical concerto
Soloist with orchestral accompaniment (subservient)
Double-exposition sonata form
Has 2 different expositions: 1st orchestra plays exposition, then soloist plays exposition, then development, then recap
String quartet
2 violins, viola, cello
Where was the classical era centered?
What is Julius Caesar?
Baroque opera about JC (not classical because it’s not comical)
What is the movement of the classical era concerto?
fast, slow, fast
What is the movement of the classical symphony?
fast (sonata), slow, stylized dance (listening instead of dancing), faster than 1st movement
What is the main difference between concerto and symphony?
Symphony includes dance
What is a fugue?
polyphonic piece for multiple voices written in a systematic way
Fugue subject
theme the whole fugue is played based off of (repeated many time)