Dufay (composer)
chant, Latin, introduced paraphrase technique

EARLY renaissance

Josquin (composer)
Polyphonic, point of imitation technique

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High renaissance composer

Council of Trent

words are the most important thing

return to homophonic style

Late Renaissance composer

Started in Italy, major composer is Monteverdi, uses text painting, short in text, repetitive, no set form
The Baroque era
highly centered around venice, italy

introduction of major & minor modes

The Renaissance period
introduction to reasoning/inquiry, more humanistic in terms of art
Gabrielli (composer)
introduces organ, extravagance vs control, no text painting, sequence: exact repetition (starts on new note/position)
Basso ostinato (ground bass)
repeated pattern (significant) that lasts through
Basso continuo
continuous set of chords underlying the melody
drama that is sung throughout. began in venice
text/words of the opera
major composer of opera
men who were castrated before puberty to keep their voices high (highly sought after)
half-singing, half-reciting style of presenting words following speech accents and speech rhythms closely
solo showcase for a singer
Figured Bass
shorthand notation for accompanyment
self-contained section of a whole work
wrote concertos, ie The Four Seasons
a large compossition for orchestra and solo instrument
Concerto grosso
the main Baroque type of concerto, for a group of solo instruments and a small orchestra
Ritornello form
the orchestral material at the beginning of a concerto gross which always returns later in the piece
Variation form
a form in which a single melodic unit is repeated with harmonic, rhythmic, dynamic or timbral changes
da capo aria
an aria in ABA form
church cantata
a cantata with religious words
an improvised passage for the soloist in a concerto, usually towards the ends of movements
counter subject
in a fugue, a subsidiary melodic line that appears regularly in counterpoint with the subject
a composition written systematically in imitative polyphony, usually with a single main theme, the fugue subject
in a fugue, a passage that does not contain any complete appearances of the fugue subject
exposition (subject)
the first section of a fugue
chorale prelude
an organ composition based on a chorale tune
long, semi-dramatic piece on a religious subject for soloists, chorus and orchestra (Bible as text but not performed in a church, not costumes)
Frescobaldi (composer)
wrote for the church, wrote in suite
J.S. Bach
concerto, many soloists at a time, lots of keyboard, German
wrote oratorio, ie Messiah in English. Also wrote Julius Caesar, an opera
dance that followed da capo form