-old fashioned style
-learned from his father and brother
Places Lived
-18 yrs old=first job in Arnstadt
-Arnstadt-> Muhihausen-> Weimar->Cothen ->Leipzig
-in charge of all sacred music
-wrote a contata a week in spare time
-sent a “resume” because he wanted to work for him.
-turned into the Brandenburg Concertos
George Frederic Handel
Places Lived
-Italy = new style
-Germany = old style
George Frederic Handel
-worked for George of hanover in Germany
-George = King George I of England
Antonio Vivaldi
-Simple Italian style
-very tonic and repetitive
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
-calssical style
-inovator of Opera
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
-Opera Seria
-Opera buffa
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
-Writes 38 symphonies
-Summer of ‘88 = 39,40,41
-G Minor Symphony (it’s a bird, it’s a plane, it’s a Mozart)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
-Marriage of Figaro
*part of a series (2nd part)
*banned in Paris because it shows the servants or lower class as being smarter than the aristocracy.
-Don Giovani
*Drama Giocosa (dramatic comedy or comedic drama)
*Story of Don Juan
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Sacred Music
-Mozart understood religion
-in Salzburg
*Archbishop Colloredo didn’t like music, made it so all the music for the mass was no more than 15-20 minutes long. In oder to do that you either have to skip parts, have different parts going at the same time, or just go really fast.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
-paid by disguised stranger to write a Requiem
-never finished by him because he died (his student completed it for him)
-knew he was going to die while writing his own Requiem
Franz Joseph Haydn
-24 yrs older than Mozart
-80+ quartets
-100+ Symphonies
Franz Joseph Haydn
-Prince Nicolas Esterhazy
-Esterhaza = name of the court
-Worked there most of the time, didn’t travel as much
Franz Joseph Haydn
-Paris Symphonies
-London Symphonies (nicknames=clock, surprise,London)
Franz Joseph Haydn
Pattern of Classical Symphony
-4 movements
*minuet or dance
Franz Joseph Haydn
-Genesis & Paradise Lost (Milton)
Haydn vs Mozart
-focus on msall little motives
-whit and humor
-start fast movement w/ slow intro
-surprises and undulation
-rural/country dance
-wrote a lot of quartets
-Big great melodies
-sophisticated / courtly
-wrote quartets in honor of Haydn
Ludwig van Beethoven
-Starts out in Bonn
*cultural backwater, nothing much exciting
*everything exciting is happening in Vienna
*he is seen as a hick or redneck
-Moves to Vienna 1792
*takes some lessons from Haydn
*leaves him and figures he can’t learn anything from him (ended up friends)
*starts out as a pianist who also composes…. Turns into a composer who also plays piano.
*it was expected for a pianist to write his own music.
Ludwig van Beethoven
The Rebel
-Retaining the outlines of classical form, but with momentary disruptions
*he throws in unusual chord progressions
*he does whatever he wants
*people thought his early works were crazy, bizarre and they broke all the rules.
*he treats the piano like an orchestra
*rapid changes from very loud to very soft
*makes people want to figure out what the music means… what is the story behind it?
*he likes to give them just enough familiar material to keep people interested
*extends the second halves of things
*develops themes more than presenting them
*cadential reinforcement – dominant and tonic over and over again (I
Ludwig van Beethoven
-Perfected the sonata and symphony, no one else wanted to be compared to him so they stopped writing it as much