Ordinary texts that remain the same on all or most days of the church calendar (King Geroge Can’t Sing Alto)
The Office
Series of 8 prayer services of the Roman church, celebrated daily at specific times, esp in monastaries and convents

Addition to an existing chant of 

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1. words and melody

2. a melisma

or 3. words only

all set to an existing melisma or other melody



a category of Latin chant that follows the “alleluia” in some masses

Restatement of a pattern on successive or different pitch levels

Liturgical Drama
Dialogue on a sacred subject, set to music and usually performed with action, and linked to the Liturgy. Based on liturgical practice but it is not a liturgical practice itself
A sign used in notation of chant to indicate a certain number of notes and general melodic direction or particular pitches (above notes)
Musica Enchiriadis
9th century. Describes 8 modes, provides exercises for locating semitones in chants, and explains the consonances and how they are used to sing polyphony
Church modes
a scale or melody type, identiifed by a particular intervallic relationship among the notes in the mode
Guido of Arezzo 11th century. Practice guide for singers that covers: notes, intervals, scales, modes, melodic composition and improvised polyphony
Guidonian Hand
Solfege on the hands
Troubadours Trouveres Trobairitz

Troubadour: a poet-composer from southern France who wrote monophonic songs in Occitan in 12 or 13th century

Trouvere: a poet-composer of southern France who wrote monophonic songs in Old French in 12th or 13th century

Minnesinger, Minnelieder

Minnesinger: a poet composer of medieval Germany who wrote monophonic songs, particularly about love, in Middle High Germany

Minnelieder: German love songs, sung by above

A medieval monophonic song in Spanish or Portuguese
Medieval instrumental dance featuring a series of sections, each played twice with two different Endings (Ouvert and Clos)

Particularly in the 5th as a perfect something in the 9th century it was the conscience

Parallel: 5ths were convenience (perfect and beautiful) in medieval times

Mixed: combines oblique motion with parallel motion

Oblique: one singer will sing the same note as the other will sing the melody, until they both can move in parallel 4ths without singing tritones

Music of musical texture consiting of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody
Cathedral of Notre Dame
Late 12 and 13th centuries. Musicians would create more ornate polyphony and songs for more than 2 voices
The rhythmic modes

6 patterns in total


L: Long, B: Short (brief)


Magnus liber organi
Credits Leoninus as a great organista. collection of 2 voice settings of the solo portions of the responsorial chants (gradulas, alleluias, office responsories) for major feasts of the year
Adding for the first time Latin text to teh upper voices of discount clodulae, 13th century
Ars Nova
Style of polyphony from 14th century France, with a new system of rhythmic notation that allowed duple or triple divisions and syncopation
Repetition in a voice part of an extended pattern of durations throughout a section or entire composition
Formes fixes
Schemes of poetic and musical repetition, each featuring a refrain, used in late medieval and 15th century French chanson
Roman de Fauvel
Long allegorical poem satirizing corruption in politics and the church written as a warning to the king of France and enjoyed in high political circles at court, Fauvel was a horse.
Hildegard von Bingen
Famous for her prophesies, wrote religious poems as well as prose and set them to music
St. Gregory the Great (Pope Gregory I)
Associated with Gregorian chant, founder of English church, chants were dictated to him by Holy Spirit

Minister to Theodoric, Ostrogoth ruler of Italy and wrote on philosophy, logic, theology and the mathematical art. For him, music was a science of numbers and numeric ratios to determine intervals, consonances, scale and tuning


Guido of Arezzo
Left hand, musica enchiriadis, introduced a set of syllables correspoinding to the pattern of tones and semitones in the succession CDEFGA
Bernart de Ventadorn
late 12th and early 13th century, one of teh most influential troubadours, born as a servant of the court, all poetry evokes fluctuating moods