modal system
basis of music during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Nadia Boulanger
at the American Conservatory
experimentalism (Charles Ives)
Artistic and musical movements focusing on extreme emotions, such as fear or anguish.
Charles Ives- degree from yale. Composed in isolation: dissonance polytonality and polyrythms
nationalism (Aaron Copeland)
19th century movement that stressed national identity. Aaron copland
George Gershwin
Tin Pan Alley composer, NYC, incorporates jazz elements
minimalism and Glass
type of music seeking the greatest effect from the least amount of musical material. Glass is a mucial composer
Total Serialism
all elements of music can be organized into a sequence…pitch, rythym,dynamics,timbre, articulation
Experimental Sounds
Chance music-
Prepared piano-
Electronic music-
Chance Music (aleatoric)
allows preformers to make choices in performance.
prepared piano
places objects in pianos
electronic music
music manipulation of tape or recorded sounds
Olivier Messaien
unclassified French composer that was interested in Gregorian chant.
Pierre Boulez
One of most influential postwar musical figures in Europe
French and composer
Made series for pianist’s: pitch, duration, attack (the way the pianist strikes the note) and dynamics
Krzysztof Penderecki
wrote St. Luke’s Passion
John Cage
born in Los Angeles
son of an inventor
studied with Schoenberg
“Everything we do is music”
left musical talents to chance
Olly Wilson
African American composer in St. Louis
Has degrees from: Washington university in St. Louis, Univ. of Iowa, and Univ. of Illinois
Chairman of music at Univ. of California at Berkley
Elected to American Academy of Arts and Letters
Specialized in electronic music
Pauline Oliveros
born in Houston in 1932
1992 won a fellowship for National Endowment of the Arts
Served as composer-in-residence at several colleges
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
born in Florida in 1939
studied at Julliard
composed a Pulitzer Prize winning symphony
first composer-in-residence at Carnegie Hall
Most popular jazz of the 1930’s and 1940’s
Usually played larger bands
larger number of performers than Dixielamd
alter sound
scat singing
Jazz technique- (dab dab dut dud dat)
making things up on spot
roots of jazz
popular songs late 19th and 20th century, syncopated, Brass bands- John Philip Souza. Black Gospel music. The blues. Ragtime. New Orleans important place
fast paced piano, originated from blues
early jazz with highly syncopated music
stride piano
jazz piano style evolving from ragtime
boogie woogie
Little Richard, Good Golly Miss Molly
New Orleans Jazz
swing/big band
upbeat syncopated rhythms using brass instruments and such
Style of jazz w/ fast tempo, improvisation, fast notes
cool jazz
white musicians influenced by black bebop musicians, has “smooth” feel
free jazz
jazz with no limits or rules, primitive sounding
combines jazz and rock music
90’s jazz revival
reviving jazz?
born in 1868
got job as pianist in Maple Leaf saloon and became Maple Leaf Rag
died in 1917 completely unrecognized during lifetime
Bessie Smith
grew up in TN
helped support families by singing on street concerts
devoted life to singing blues
died as result of car crash in 1937
started recording in 1923
most important 1920’s jazz figure
very talented trumpet player
career spanned over 50 years
made living in Chicago with New Orleans style
responsible for around 1,000 jazz compositions
very good pianist, composer, bandleader, songwriter
first to make full use of jazz orchestra
Thelonius Monk
played independently
bebop player
Dizzy Gillespie
played independently
bebop player
Charlie Parker
bebop player
played independently
self-destructive saxophonist
died of alcoholism and drug addiction
Miles Davis
formed small highly creative bebop ensembles
Modern Jazz QT
composer of songs and a jazz pianist
attracted to the concert hall
part of jazz revival
extreme virtuoso trumpet player
awarded Pulitzer Prize in 1997
Characteristics of American Popular Music
MASS APPEAL: crosses cultural lines, transcends regional, ethnic, ecnomic, political, educational bondaries
EASY TO LISTEN TO – melody and lyrics most important
SINGABLE MELODY – diatonic and repetitive
Stephen Foster
most important composer of the period
trained musician
Old Kentucky Home, O Susannah, Camptown Races, Jeannie with the Light Brown Hair, Old Folks at Home
His success led to the start of the commercialization of popular music
minstrel shows
Lively, syncopated, often humorous, (combined with dances, skits, acrobats to make the show)
Written by whites for whites
Daddy Rice and Dan Emmett (Dixie and Old Dan Tucker)
successor to minstrel shows
Tin Pan Alley
street in NYC where pop music publishers were located
Part of music industry devoted to pop music
African-American influences
Performed by black musicians for black audiences
Ethnic Music that has risen to mainstream of American popular music (Gospel, Rhythm and Blues, Motown, Soul, Rap, Rock, New Age)
blues singing with boogie-woogie and electric guitar
Memphis and Chicago were important centers
Important Composers: Lightnin Hopkins, Muddy Waters, BB King, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Chuck Berry
Music flourished in Detroit in early 1960s
Black gospel, R&B, and Jazz influences
Berry Gordy
Gladys Knight and the Pips
Diana Ross and the Supremes
Stevie Wonder
Grew from inner-city New York
Part of hip-hop culture
Also includes street poetry
Break Dancing
Describes harsh reality of urban life for blacks
Arose in 1950’s
Elvis Presley
Bill Haley & the Comets
Little Richard
early rock & roll, Elvis
social upheavals, Beatles and “british invasion”, Dylan, Hendrix, folk musicians
Rolling Stones
The Who
Pink Floyd
70’s and 80’s
acid rock, heavy metal, fusion, disco, punk, MTV, Michael Jackson, Madonn
rap, commercial pop
New Age
country, bluegrass, western swing
absolute music/program music
music just for itself
has no meaning outside of the meaning of the music itself, and the feelings it produces in its listeners
produces soud by vibrating air columns
blue note
flattened or bent note played or sung in jazz
type of music streaming from African folk sounds
began as type of vocal music that crystallized in the 1890’s from many elements including African American folk songs, work songs, street cries
chance music
opposite extreme from controlled music
allows improvisation
character piece
short programatic piece, usually for solo piano
music played via chords
instrumental work
usually 3 movements
highlights contrast: usually written fast, slow, fast
constantly repeated musical phrase
instrumental introduction in 3 short movements: fast, slow, fasth
pentatnic scale
5 step scale
different meters sounding simultaneously
multiple tones sounding simultaneously
music with more than one line sounding at the same time
32 Bar song form
12 Bar blues
Regional music gone national
Hillbilly Music (folk music of the South)
Western Swing (larger ensemble with saxes brass, jazz rhythm sections)
originally songs and dances of Appalachian Mts., continues of old-time sings
Bill Monroe, Lester Flatt & Earl Scruggs, Alison Krause
Western Swing
larger ensemble with saxes, brass, jazz rhythm sections (piano, bass drums)
Roy Rogers
Gene Autrey
Schubert – “Die Forelle” (The Trout) – art song
Title: Duh
Composer: Franz Schubert
Style: Romantic
Instruments Used: Voice and Piano
Date/Musical Period: Romantic (1817)
Outstanding Musical Elements: charming in the way it sets the atmosphere
Schubert – 4th Movement from Quintet in A (“The Trout”)
Title: The Trout
Composer: Franz Schubert
Instruments: Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass, Piano
Song Without Words
Title: Song Without Words
Composer: Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
Style: Romantic Period
Date: 1840
Prelude in E Minor
Title: Prelude in E Minor
Composer: Fryderyk Chopin
Date/Musical Period: Romantic (1836-39)
Traumerei from Kinderscenen
The word that starts with a T means “Dreaming”
Composer: Robert Schumann
Date/Period: Romantic (1838)
Transcendental Etude
Title: Transcendental Etude
Composer: Franz Liszt
Date/Period: Romantic (1839)
The Moldau
Title: The Moldau
Composer: Bedrich Smetana
Date/Musical Period: Romantic (1874)
Instruments: flutes, oboes, bassoons, french horns, trumpets, trombones, tuba, timpani, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, harp, strings
Symphony No. 4 – 4th Movement
Title: 4th Movement from Symphony No. 4
Composer: Johannes Brahms
Date/Period: Romantic (1885)
Instruments: flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, trombones, timpani, full string section
Concerto in E-Flat
Title: aka Dumbarton Oaks
Composer: Igor Stravinsky
Date/Period: Neo-Classical (1938)
Instrument: flute, clarinet, bassoon, horns, violins, violas, cellos, basses
Title: Madonna from Pierrot Lunaire
Composer: Arnold Schoenberg
Date/Period: Expressionist (1912)
3rd Movement from 5 Movements for String Quartet Op. 5
Composer: Anton Webern
Instrument: 2 violins, viola, cello
Date/Period: Classical Scene (1909)
2nd Movement from “Putnam’s Camp” from Three Places in New England
Composer: Charles Ives
Date/Period: aural collage; from classical scene (1903-11)
Instruments: flute/piccolo, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horns, trumpets, trombones, tuba, piano, timpani, drums, cymbals, strings
Fanfare for the Common Man
Title: Fanfare for the Common Man
Composer: Aaron Copland
Instruments: trumpets, horns, trombones, tuba, timpani, bass drum, tam-tam
Date/Period: Classical scene (1942)
Sonata III
Title: Sonata III from Sonatas & Interludes for Prepared Piano
Composer: John Cage
Instruments: Prepared piano
Date/Period: 1946-1948; idk the period
Title: Sometimes
Composer: Olly Wilson
Date: 1976
Instruments: Tenor and taped electronic sounds
Symphony No. 1
Title: 3rd Movement from Symphony No. 1
Composer: Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
Date: 1983
Instruments: lots of them
Florida Bound Blues
Singer: Bessie Smith
Pianist: Clarence Williams
12-Bar Blues with AAB pattern
Date: 1925
It Don’t Mean a Thing
Title: It Don’t Mean a Thing
Composer: Duke Ellington
Date: 1932
Voice, 3 trumpets, trombones, saxophones, piano, banjo, bass, drums
Hotter Than That
Title: Hotter Than That
Composer: Louis Armstrong
32 measures
trumpet, clarinet, trombone, piano, banjo, guitar
Charlie Parker: alto sax
Al Haig: piano
Percy Heath: bass
Max Roach: drums
Charlie Parker Quartet
AABA form
Bebop era
Maple Leaf Rag
Scott Joplin
syncopated melody
first instrumental sheet music to sell over 1 million copies