What were two of the most popular publications of the nineteenth century?
Sacred Harp and Southern Harmony
What is a ?set piece?
A song of irregular poetic meter not based on Biblical text, used for various occasions, and not a specific place in a worship service
What were the major differences in the subject matter between the British and American Folk ballads? How were instrumental tunes also distinct?
American folk singers sang for self expression, rather than community participation or market entertainment. The instrumental tunes were distinct in that American music had a habit of dwelling on a particular note for expressive purposes
Who were the Carter family, and why were they important in the history of commercial music?
Early country music ensemble who between 1927 and 1943 recorded over 300 songs and sold millions of recordings
What were the genres of country music?
String bands, Singing cowboys, Western Swing, and Honky-tonk
What are the five important elements common to most traditional Indigenous American Music?
Short monophonic songs, Use of vocables, limited use of instruments, rhythms following words, and functional music
What is the Ghost Dance, and what is its importance in the creation of ?pan-Indian? music?
A native American ritual dance that helped to create a shared cultural identity among disparate indigenous peoples and helped spread certain musical characteristics across the continent
What is a powwow?
Intertribal meetings that evolved into popular events where people from many groups gathered for music, dance, and celebration
What was distinctive about the African-American spirituals of the 1800s?
They had an effect that was described as seemingly random, like the singing of birds
What are the African elements associated with early African-American music?
Distinctive rhythms, responsorial forms, and microtonal pitch inflections
Who was Stephen Foster, and why is he an important historical figure in African-American music?
A composer whose minstrel songs Oh Susannah and Old Folks at Home went on to become icons of Americana
What is a strain?
A section of a march or a dance
What features of early jazz music were so problematic for early critics of the genre?
Syncopation and improvisation
What is a rhythm section?
The section in a jazz band that included the ragtime piano, the double bass or tuba, drums, and sometime banjo
What is the head in a piece of jazz music?
The initial statement of the tune
How are hollers and the blues related?
A form of wordless singing, that combined with existing styles eventually evolved into blues
Who are the early stars of country blues?
Robert Johnson and Edward ?Son? House
metallophone that plays the pokok
metallophone of the gangsa, pitched an octave lower than the kantilan
medium sized hanging gong, part of the gangsa
gong that plays every other or every fourth note of the pokok
single kettle gong that functions as a metronome for the group
cymbals that reinforce the drum patterns
low-octave metallophone, leads the gangsa section
vertical flute that plays an elaborated form of the melody
a drum that functions as the conductor, played by two people
set of 12 kettle gongs mounted horizontally, played using interlocking technique
What is the name the traditional Chinese instrument which is a collection of stone chimes?
Bian Qing
What is the traditional Chinese instrument that is a fretless lute with a shallow resonator covered in snakeskin and used to accompany musical storytelling?
San xian
What is a yunluo?
A collection of dish-shaped gongs on a stand
What is the name of the short cylindrical double reed instrument? (In traditional Chinese music)
Describe the rhythmic character of Ping sha lo yen
Almost always peaceful, serene , and balanced. The meter is free and slow.
What is the focus on during a guqin performance?
The focus is on the delicate ornamentation of single notes
What is the system of notation that specifies how a piece is to be played on the guqin?
Pictorial descriptions
What are three innovations in Chinese music during the communist take over?
Women performed in Jingxi, realistic staging and proscenium stages were used, and traditional and modern operas were replaced by ‘model’ operas based on western dramatic conventions but with Chinese instruments
What is the name for a luogu ensemble with two suonas added to carry the melody?
How is dialogue delivered in The Drunken Concubine?
Through song, sometimes using stylized dialog and speaking voice of the dan or female role.
What is the role of the other percussion instruments in Bejing Opera?
The percussion instruments articulate the rhythmic structure of the songs, and provide sound effects during songs and stage actions
the “primary beat”, a moderate tempo that accompanies simple narration or dialogue during an opera
How are most Beijing Opera texts organized?
Consists of a series of unconnected episodes from various operas, culminating in an acrobatic battle scene late in the evening
What is the counterpart to Lagu?
What is the name of the short introduction that sets the character of a gamelan performance?
What is the name of the end blown bamboo flute that plays elaborate melodies in the Gamelan ensemble?
The _______ family is made up of bronze kettle-gongs that are played horizontally with sticks and play a role in elaborating the melody.
bass member of the gender family, plays the core melody with single padded mallet
thick-keyed metallophones with a box resonator, plays the core melody, comes in three sizes
What is the mode of Pangkur? What notes are emphasized in it?
Pelog – pitches 1 and 3 are the most emphasized notes
set of two drums played by the conductor of the ensemble
metallophones with a tube resonator, played with disc shaped mallets, plays melodic elaborations
small hanging gongs
wooden xylophone with a box resonator, played in parallel octaves
large vertical gong, signals the end of the metric cycle
Gong Ageng
large kettle gongs, played as part of the colotomic structure
large plucked zither, plays melodic elaborations
What does the word irama refer to?
The rhythmic densities of various instruments to the beat
Describe the concept of patet
The guiding structure of melody in gamelan music that includes a hierarchy of stressed and unstressed tones and characteristic motives
What is the Javanese term for “beat?”
What are cengkok?
The variations on certain patterns played by the elaborating instruments in Gamelan
What is the name for the empty beat within a cycle in gamelan?
What is the lead instrument of the melodic instruments in Gamelan?
How is the gong cycle organized in Pangkur?
32 beat gong cycle divided into 4 kenong strokes
Which instruments create a lyrical perspective of the melody in Pangkur?
Bonang, gambang, and gender
Which instruments elaborate the balungan in Pangkur??
Celempung, suling, and rebab
What is banjur?
The complex web of social obligations to one’s local community
What is the gangsa and what role does it play in kebyar music?
The metallophones that are used to play the fast figurations in Balinese Gamelan
What is the pokok?
The slow moving core melody, as opposed to the fast figurations played by the gangsa
What is the name for the cue that dancers give to the orchestra? What does it signal in Gending Pengalang Bebarongan?
Angsel, in Gending Pengalang Bebarongan, it signals the beginning and end of sections of the song
Describe the kecak music form
Form of music in which shouts are used in place of the metallophones used in Gamelan music
The dazzling technique of interlocking melodies that is used throughout Gending Pengalang Bebarongan is called what?
What are tabuh?
The short repeated melodies played in Topeng music
Why is “gambang suling” important to both Balinese and Javanese gamelan music?
A pop song that was adapted for Javanese and Balinese gamelan music
What are some of the general characteristic of traditional Chinese music?
Monophony, ornamentation, and variation
Who uses the ban and xiaogu during The Drunken Concubine and for what purpose?
A percussionist uses these two instruments to play important cues, start the group, and establish tempos