What were the cultural impacts of Japan’s post-war occupation?
mix of old and new, traditional and foreign
What bordering countries influenced Japanes music in the following ways:

a) Religion:
b) Writing System
c) Instruments

a) India (Buddism)
b) China
c) China and Korea (Sho)
Kareoke means:
empty orchestra
After 1911 ____________ music became influential, threatening traditional tunes.
Flute music in free rythm
playing music in both the dan (highly varied sectional repetitions) and joha-
kyu musical forms.
Musical Form– jo-ha-kyu

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Define each part:

• Jo– “introduction,” slow beginning section;
• Ha—“breaking apart,” building tempo;
• Kyu—“rushing,” tempo reaches its peak, only to slow before the
piece ends.
kouta songs,
sung by a geisha to the accompaniment of shamisen
Japanes Scale
12 division of octave, like western music. Based on Chinese system ,
using rations like Pythagorean system of west. Steps are untempered, and half
steps distances vary by performer, genre and at times instrument.
The Japanese aesthetic sense favors the use of a broad range of
sounds and tone qualities in their music. “Unpitched” sounds are commonly
heard in the middle of instrumental melodies.
Diverse melodies

Japanese melodies often contain short motifs that are repeated

traditional music is dominated by heterophonic sound.

flexibility of pulse in many pieces. Even
when a steady beat is present, there can be a sense of flexibility.
Three defining characteristics of Japanese music:
1) variety of timbres,
including unpitched sounds

(2) heterophonic treatment of voices in an ensemble;

(3) flexibility of pulse found in both solo and ensemble

Instrument – SHAKUHACHI
“blowing Zen.”

5 holes, can produce microtones.


from china and adapted, one of most popular traditional instruments.
3 string lute, very popular, used to convey emotion and drama.
Used in the theater
Calssical music divisions in India
North– Hindi Hindustani style

South– Dravidian karnataka tradition

(melodic modes)
(metric cycles)
Southern Indian Style
Karnataka style

classical songs are mostly devotional

Karnataka Sangeeta

Busier texture, more ornamentation than northern style

northern Indian style

instruments (sitar and tabla)

influenced by Persian and Islamic culture

long improvisations

Instrument (Mridangam)
double headed drum – barrel shaped. Leather heads. Many different sounds
instrument talam

(finger cymbals

Instrument (ghatam)
clay pot)
(double reed)
sruti box
makes drones
marks the tonal center of the raga.
hundreds of scales (sa ri ga)

“that which colors the mind”-.

Each raga has its own set of rules. Represent colors, emotions, deities, etc.

Raga notes
relate to drone

ornamentation to raga. Orally transmitted
Tala –
time cycle. Differ from western meters
Adi tala, ata tala, rupaka tala, triputa tala
8 , 14 , 3, 7
4 types of improvisation in karnataka music
Alapana – gradual exploration of the raga and its gamaka.

Tanam – a more rhythmic exposition of the raga, lively and strongly articulated.

Niraval – improvised variation on one phrase or line of a song.

Svara kalpana – imagined notes after the niraval. – middle of the composition—or a fter complete

Kriti (composition)
major form of south Indian concert performance.