Anything that stands for something else that creates an effect perceived as meaningful to someone. (Icon, Index, Symbol)
Iconic Sign
sign connected to an object through resemblance between the sign and the object (internal context).

example:music genres

Indexical Sign
-Sign connected through experiencing a sign and an object together (co-occurance).

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-more emotional type of sign

Symbolic Sign
Connection between sign and object is based on language, and an agreed upon definition of a word.
A single melodic line with accompaniment.
2 or more instrument or voices performing variants of a melody simultaneously, but not in strict unison.
Music with two or more melodic parts sounding together
A piece of music with 2 or more independent melodic lines
Cultural Cohort
A unit of cultural identity based on a restricted number of shared habits and similarities of parts of the self.
Examples: age, gender,grade, religion,skin color and occupation
African Music style
–This area’s music tends to be participatory in nature with a dense sound, buzzy texture, wide tuning, and cyclical/ repetitive form.

–It tends to be combined with dance to form unity between the sexes.

The start of African Popular Music
European music taught to Africans in mission schools, Christian churches, and military bands.

-Zimbabwe: mbira music w/ acoustic guitar (Mapfumo’s electric band).
-Mande: kora and kontingo w/ acoustic guitar (Super Rail Band).

The 4 social groups of Latin America
1. Indigenous
2. Criollo (European type habits)
3. Mestizo (mix of habits)
4. African Heritage (brought over “Africanisms”)
Peruvian panpipes (southern)

-It interlocks with another siku to go up and down the scale.
-Used in large groups during festivals.

notched flute used in Southern Peru
Bombos and Wankara
Types of drums and percussion used in Southern Peru.
-2nd most spoken indigenous Andean language.

–Their culture is Egalitarian, and has no hierarchy–every decision is made as a group (consensus).
–This shows in their music style because they perform only as a community.
–Participatory style (w/ density, high registers, and repetition);No solos.

Pastorita Huaracina
-She wanted to get back to her rural roots, and her music reflects this. It is a mix of indigenous and mestizo (in music and dress). She had vibrato and high-pitched whoops at end of phrases.
-Music of 2nd generation migrants

-Had a wayno melody with new modern rhythm (cumbia).

–Electric instruments w/ rock influences.

-Plucked, long-necked fretted lute
-Indian melody instrument
The intro section to a raga.

– It has no drum, shows the melody and is an intro to the most important notes to come in the raga.

2nd part of “main piece” in kriti performance structure

-made up of Pallavi, Anapallavi, and Caranam

-3rd part in “main piece” of kriti performance structure.
-it is an improvised new melodic setting for a particular line in the kriti (usually Caranam).
Svara Kalpana
4th part of Kriti structure, and is an improvised melodic passage in solfege syllables.
Tani Avartanam
drum solo (and 5th part of kriti structure).
Adi Tala
8 beat cycle (Indian)
Solfege syllables
short syllables associated with a pitch (in Indian music)
The main drum in Karnatak music (Indian)
a long-necked lute used to provide drone (Indian)
A fretted South Indian melodic instrument w/ drone strings.
Women stereotypes
in South India
Women did more dance-related genres b/c they were associated w/ the “body”.

-genres include Padam and Javali.

Men gender stereotypes
in South India
Men were associated w/ the “mind”, so they do more improvisation and competitive roles.

-genre example is Ragam-Tanam.

Indian Classical styles of music
–more learning by oral imitation

–made up of smaller ensembles w/ no harmony

— more emphasis on Improv and creativity

–awareness of past traditions

–attended mainly by elites and the educated.

North India’s major classical system

has more improvisation and includes Sitar, Table, and Tambura.

South Indian major classical system
-more fixed, it includes the vina, mridangam, and tambura.
South Indian, group devotional song.

-call and response btwn kids and adults
-more participatory and repetetive, denser texture

African instrument normally made out of a gourd that serves as a resonating box, with vibrating metal or wooden strips attached for plucking.
Ostinato riffs in a solo kora performance (African)
Improvised solos (african)
African musicians and oral historians.
People of African Heritage
on the plantation
-African heritage people were the first people to pair banjo and fiddle together to play in U.S.
a rhythmic type of style of playing a banjo where your thumb and hand curves and strums in a downward motion. Used by slaves first.
Dicent Signs
A type of index; a sign affected by what it stands for.
Participatory performance
Artistic practice where no audience-artist distinction is made.
The goal is to involve as many as possible of all skill levels.
Presentational Performance
Situation where artists prepare and provide music for an audience group, who do not participate in the music making.
High Fidelity
The making of recordings intended to be indexical or iconical of a live performance.
Studio Audio art
The creation and manipulation of sounds in a studio or on a computer to create a recorded art object. “art for art’s sake”
Semiotic Density
Many signs occurring simultaneously
Cultural Formation
A group of people that have a majority of preexisting habits in common that make up each individual member’s self. ex: family
Cultural formations where they use money and try to save money instead of sharing with outer family.

–they might still believe in witchcraft before doctor though.

Associated with religious ceremonies
refers to panpipes, music and dance together.
Common type of shaker in Africa
(or Ngororombe)
“Outside the house” ceremony, no spirit possession
Thomas Mapfumo
–sang protest songs using metaphors
–hosho replaced by high hat symbols
–base part of mbira replaced by base guitar
–“neo-indigenous” music
Shona society
-highly patriarchical ociety
Jarusarema/ Mbende
— “outside the house” ceremony
–“field mouse”= mbende
–playful song where men have wooden clappers and women drive men back (inverted gender relationships) and participatory style
Women hosho players
–once spirit arrives, everyone dances
–drink beer and dance all night
Cosmopolitan vs Indigenous
African society
COSMO: monogamy, curency, Christian, presentational music styles
INDIGI: polygamy, lower class, witchcraft practiced, participatory music styles.
De Black Evening Follies
-a well-dressed presentational band in 1940s;
put on a variety of acts in township recreation halls for middle class.
-imitated Jarusarema(too much emphasis on hip thrust)
Old time string bands
-consist of Banjo, fiddle, and acoustic guitar
Banjo = fiddle
first played together by african american slaves
Minstrel shows in US
led banjo to move toward pop culture
women dancers in India who became prostitutes after British changed things.
“Say it Loud” vs “We Shall Overcome”
–Both are indexical of civil rights movement–
-“Say it Loud”: lyrics, jazzy, horns, kids, and emphasis on differences
-“We shall Overcome”: religious hymn during MLK time, and hope for peace and intregration
all are different words for the African proto-banjo.
Skillet Lickers
An early commercial country music string band.
Bluegrass Music
–credited by Bill Monroe
-adds Earl Scruggs to the band.
faster tempo, w/ jazz-like solos
-clearer sounding
Earl Scruggs
an amazing Banjo player in Monroe’s bluegrass band.
–came up with Scruggs’s style of 3-finger picking of the banjo strings,
–gave banjo clearer sound.
Great Folk Scare
a time when middle class northerners got interested in string band music.
Kingston Trio
revivalist group, but less dense, more harmony, and more presentational.
–mocked rural southerners, but really from Hawaii.
Quechua and Aymara
2 most common languages in Peru.
Pancho mama
“earth mother” in indigenous areas who have relationship with earth.
Egalitarian society
Society w/ no hierarchy. Everything is based on consensus, and noone holds too much power.
“Andean saxaphone” in music for carnivals.
Wayno genre
genre in Peru that is most commonly composed by Mestizos, and the defining feature is the rhythm.
— it’s the main couple’s dance.
Chinchu Music
Andean Dance troup; Jungle music sang to virgin w/ narrative purpose.
–has unusual timbre