Marching Tuba. Tuba with its bell pushed outward specifically so the sound goes forward when marching. Wraps around the player to make it easier to hold while playing and marching Named after the great marching band director John Philip Sousa who came up with the idea for the marching tuba
Baritone Euphonium


larger bore small tuba matches pitches played by trombone plays one octave higher than a tuba


another trumpet like instrument mellower sound big bell used exclusively in jazz
Like a trumpet slightly smaller with a conical core. Mellow sound
piccolo trumpet
octave higher than normal trumpet. rarely seen . 4 valves instead of three
similar to a trumpet range no valves Used in military for signals
Tuba –


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bass member/brass section lowest notes can have 3 or 4 valves Adds body to band or orchestra. Timbre ranges from a velvety sound to a rumbling growl.




tenor member brass section large trumpet original name was sackbut which means push and pull. No valves uses U shaped slide that can play glissandos like trumpet great instrument for jazz


French Horn


alto member brass section. Mellow sounding soloistic. Blends well with woodwinds brass strings. Has large range. Smallest mouthpiece of brass instruments and most difficult to play




soprano member of the brass section. Highest sounding brass most popular ceremonial triumphant Great instrument for jazz




characteristics made of brass cup shaped mouthpieces valves or slide curved tubing cylindrical or conical bore bell at the end of the instrument sound produced by vibration of lips into mouthpiece. To carry sound quality all brass instruments use mutes which are placed in the bell of the instrument.


what is the difference in a tuba in the brass section

uses a slide rather than a valve


what are similarities of the brass section

they all are made of brass

use valves

deep voice



one melody

early music

gragorian chant


polophonic (pholphny) music

two or more sounds/voices


created harmony


multi parts

homaphonic music
a melody with a different/seperate  harmony
what makes up a string quartet
2 violins, a viola, a chello

what makes up the brass quintet


2 trumpets French horn trombone tuba
what  instrument is in the woodwind and brass quintet
french horn
what is the suprano of the string quartet? (highest pitched)
what is the alto sound in the string quartet

viola (slightly larger



Woodwind quintet


 flute oboe clarinet bassoon French horn
what is another name of the organ
king of instruments because of the range of sound and can mimic brass and wind instruments


used wind to create sound air flows through many pipes (from 6 inches to 32 feet in length.) Uses devices called stops to change sounds. Two or more keyboards with multiple foot pedals for brass notes Pipe organ has been mainstay of liturgical music for over 400 years because of its versatility and outright power.




invented in 1709 by Bartolomeo Christofori Greatly improved on the other keyboards of the day. Used felt hammers to t-strike the strings rather than pluck the strings as a harpsichord of the metallic sound of tangents used to hit strings of a clavichord. Capable of greater range of dynamics soft louds and allowed for changes of dynamics quickly or gradually. Greater crescendos and diminuendos that were not possible to this time by other keyboards. Original design was a wooden case with a wooden frame. Later in 19th century wooden case held up with a steel frame. Made the same way to this day. Over the past 300 years few great composers if any did not write for the piano. Changed the face of Europe’s music around which most of its culture has revolved Today Electric pianos are popular because of their portability and can be amplified to match the volume of guitars and drums


what are the 6 periods and what are their dates

Renissance period

Baroque Period 1600-1750

Classical Era Period 1750-1825

Romantic Period 1820-1900

Post romantic 1890-1915

20th Century 1900-present

musical form
the organizing principle in music
basic elements
repetition, contrast and variation
improvisation, binary form, tenary form, ballad,theme sequences
binary form
A-B statement and departure, verse/chorus
ternary form
A-B-A statement departure statement
Long poem/ narrative that tells a story
melodic idea used as a building block
thematic developement
elaborating on or varying a musical idea. Uses repetition and sequence
smallest fragment of a musical theme
call and response
singing leader who is imitated by a chorus
short musical pattern that is repeated continuosly.melodic,rhythmic or harmonic
complete indipendent division of a large scale work
Musical Form / Tempo, Dynamics
Elements of expression
rate of speed pace of the music
Degree of loudness or softness of a sound. See also dynamics.
Disjointed or disconnected melody with many leaps.
A musical symbol denoting pitch and duration.
The quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another.
The high point in a melodic line or piece of music, usually reprsenting the peak of intensity, range, and dynamics.
Distance between the lowest and highest tones of a melody, and instrument, or a voice
Smooth, connected melody that moves principally by small intervals.
The overall shape of a melodic line. It can move upward, downward, remain static.
Rate of vibration of a string or column of air, which determines pitch.
Distance and relationship between two pitches.
Musical unit; often component of a melody.
Succession of single tones or pitches perceived by the mind as a unity.
rhyme scheme
The arrangement of rhyming words or corresponding sounds at the end of poetic lines.
Resting place in a musical phrase; music punctuation.
An accompanying melody sounded against the principal melody.
The controlled movement of music in time.
Regular pulsation; a basic unit of length in musical time.
The emphasis on a beat resulting in its being louder or longer than another in a measure.
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Organization of rhythm in time; the grouping of beats into larger, regular patterns, notated as measures.
Rhythmic group or metrical unit that conrains a fixed number of beats, divided on the musical staff by bar lines.
measure lines
Vertival lines through the staff that separate metric units, or measures. Also called barlines.
First beat of the measure, the strongest in any meter.
duple meter
Basic metrical pattern of two beats to a measure.
triple meter
Basic metrical pattern of three beats to a measure.
quadruple meter
Basic metrical pattern of four beats to a measure. Also commone time.
simple meter
Grouping of rhythms in which the beat is subdivided into two, as in duple, triple, and quarduple meters.
compound meter
Meter in which each beat is subdivided into three rather than two.
sextuple meter
Compound metrical pattern of six beats to a measure.
Last beat of a measure, a weak beat, which anticipates the downbeat.
Deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat.
off beat
A weak beat or any pulse between the beats in a measured rhytmic pattern.
The simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters, common in twentieth-century music and in certain African musics.
additive meter
patterns of beats that subdivide into smaller, irregular groups (e.g., 2 + 3 + 2 + 3 = 10); common in certain Eastern European musics.
Music lacking a strong sense of beat or meter, common in certain non-Western musics.
Distance and relationship between two pitches.
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Simultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony.
The simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationships of intervals and chords.
Series of tones in ascending or descending order; may present the notes of a key.
Interval between two tones seven diatonic pitches apart; the lower note vibrates half as fast as the upper and sounds an octave lower.
Common chord type, consisting of three pitches built on alternate tones of the scale (e.g., steps 1-3-5, or do-mi-sol).
The first note of the scale or key, do. Also keynote.
Principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale.
Combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution.
Concordant or harmonious combination of tones that provides a sense of relaxation and stability in music.
Sustained sounding of one or several tones for harmonic support, a common feature of some folk musics.
half step
Smallest interval used in the Western system; the octave divides into twelve such intervals; on the piano, the distance between any two adjacent keys, whether black or white. Also semitone.
Melody or harmony built from many if not all twelve semitones of the octave.
chromatic scale
A chromatic scale consists of an ascending or descending sequence of semitones
sharp sign
Musical symbol (#) that indicates raising a pitch by a semitone.
flat sign
Musical symbol (b) that indicates lowering a pitch by a semitone.
whole step
Interval consisting of two half steps, or semitones.
Defines the relationship of tones with a common center or tonic. Also a lever on a keyboard or woodwind instrument.
Melody or harmony built from the seven tones of a major or minor scale. A diatonic scale encompasses patterns of seven whole tones and semitones. A diatonic scale encompasses patterns of seven whole tones and semitones.
Five-note pattern used in some African, Far Eastern, and Native American musics; can also be found in Western music as an example of exoticism.
Three-note scale pattern, used in the music of some sub-Saharan African cultures
Seven-note scale; in non-Western musics, often fashioned from a different combination of intervals than major and minor scales.
Musical interval smaller than a semitone, prevalent in some non-Western musics and in some twentieth-century art music.
Small alteration of the pitch by a microtonal interval. See also blue note.
active chords
In the diatonic system, chords which need to resolve the tonic chord. These include the dominant chord and the subdominant chord.
rest chord
A chord that achieves a sense of resolution or completion, normally the tonic.
The fifth scale step, sol.
The fourth scale step, fa.
The process of changing from one key to another.
Shifting a piece of music to a different pitch level.
The interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) elements in the musical fabric.
Single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment.
heterophonic (heterophony
Texture in which two or more voices (or parts) elaborate the same melody simultaneously, often the result of improvisation.
Creation of a musical composition whilte it is being performed, seen in Baroque ornamentation, cadenzas of concertos, jazz, and some non-Western musics.
Two or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture, as distinct from monophonic.
The art of combining in a single texture two or more melodic lines.
Texture with principal melody and accompanying harmony, as distinct from polyphony.
Texture in which all voices, or lines, move together in the same rhythm.
Melodic idea presented in once voice and then restated in another, each part continuing as others enter.
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Type of polyphonic composition in which one musical line imitates another at a fixed distance throughout.
Perpetual canon at the unison in which each voice enters in succession with the same melody (for example, Row, Row, Row Your Boat).
Structure and design in music, based on repetition, contrast, and variation; the organzing principle of music.
A compositional technique whereby a passage or section is restated.
Use of opposing musical elements to emphasize difference and variety.
strophic form
Song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza (strophe) of the poem.
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The compositional procedure of altering a pre-existing musical idea. See also theme and variations.
binary form
Two-part (A-B) form with each section normally repeated. Also two-part form.
thematic development/thematic transformation
Musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm. Also thematic transformation.
Restatement of an idea or motive at a different pitch level.
Short melodic or rhythmic idea; the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit.
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calll and response
Performance style with a singing leader who is imitated by a chorus of followers. Also responsorial singing.
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responsorial singing
Singing, especially in Gregorian chant, in which a soloist or a group of soloists alternates with the choir. See also call-and-response.
General term describing the standard character of a work.
sacred music
Religious or spiritual music, for church or devotional use.
secular music
Nonreligous music; when texted, usually in the vernacular.
Large work for orchestra, generally in three or four movements.
Structure and design in music, based on repetition, contrast, and variation; the organizing principle of music
Performing forces employed in a certain musical work.
opus number
Performing forces employed in a certain musical work.
oral transmission
Preservation of music without the aid of written notation.
Characteristic manner of presentation of musical elements (melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, form, etc.).
Fairly large group of singers who perform together, usually with several on each part. Also a choral movement of a large-scale work. In jazz, a single statement of the melodic-harmonic pattern.
A group of singers who perform together, usually in parts, with several on each part; often associated with a church.
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Abbreviation for the standard voices in a chorus or choir: Soparano, Alto, Tenor, Bass; may also refer to instrumental ranges.
a capella
Choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment.
madrigal choir
Small vocal ensemble that specializes in a capella secular works.
chamber choir
Small group of up to about twenty-four singers, who usually perform a capella or with piano accompaniment.
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chamber music
Ensemble music for up to about ten players, with one player to a part.
string quartet
Chamber music ensemble consisting of two violins, viola, and cello. Also a multimovement composition for this ensemble.
piano trio
Standard chamber ensemble of piano with violin and cello.
Chamber music for five instruments or voices. See also brass quintet, piano quintet, string quintet and woodwind quintet.
string quintet
Standard chamber ensemble made up of either two violins, two violas, and cello or two violins, viola, and two cellos.
Chamber music for six instruments or voices.
Chamber music for seven instruments or voices.
Chamber music for eight instruments or voices.
woodwind quintet
Standard chamber ensemble consisting of one of each of the following: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and horn (not a woodwind instrument).
brass quintet
Standard chamber ensemble made up of two trumpets, horn, trombone, and tuba.
concert band/wind ensemble
Instrumental ensemble ranging from forty to eighty memebers or more, consisting of wind and percussion instruments. Also wind ensemble.
marching band
Instrumental ensemble for entertainment at sports events and parades, consisting of wind and percussion instruments, drum majors/majorettes, and baton twirlers.
jazz band
Instrumental ensemble made up of reed (saxophones and clarinets), brass (trumpets and trombones), and rhythm sections (percussion, piano, double bass, and sometimes guitar.)
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rock band
Popular music ensemble that depends on amplified strings, percussion, and electronically generated sounds.
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The first-chair violinist of a symphony orchestra

Early Baroque keyboard instrument in which the strings are plucked by quills instead of being struck with hammers like the piano. Also clavecin.
Wind instrument in which air is fed to the pipes by mechanical means; the pipes are controlled by two or more keyboards and a set of pedals.
Forerunner of the modern piano (also fortepiano).
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Keyboard instrument whose strings are struck with hammers controlled by a keyboard mechanism; pedals control dampers in the strings that stop the sound when the finger releases the key.
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Musical ensemble of Java or Bali, made up of gongs, chimes, metallophones, and drums, among other instruments.
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Percussion instrument consisting of a broad circular disk of metal, suspended in a frame and struck with a heavy drumstick. Also tam-tam.
Percussion instruments consisting of two large circular brass plates of equal size that are struck sidewise against each other.
Percussion instrument consisting of a slender rod of steel bent in the shape of a triangle, struck with a steel beater.
Percussion instruments consisting of small wooden clappers that are struck together. They are widely used to accompany Spanish dancing.
Percussion instrument consisting of a small, round drum with metal plates inserted in its rim; played by striking or shaking.
Cylindrical drum without snares.


Percussion instrument played with a large, soft-headed stick; the largest orchestral drum.

Percussion instrument played with a large, soft-headed stick; the largest orchestral drum.

tenor drum
Percussion instrument, larger than the snare drum, with a wooden shell.
snare drum/side drum
Small cylindrical drum with two heads stretched over a metal shell, the lower head having strings across it. Also side drum.
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chimes/tubular bells
Percussion instrument of definite pitch that consists of a set of tuned metal tubes of various lengths suspended from a frame and struck with a hammer. Also tubular bells.
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Percussion instrument resembling a minitature upright piano, with tuned metal plates struck by hammers that are operated by a keyboard.
Percussion instrument with horizontal, tuned steel bars of various sizes that are struck with mallets and produce a bright, metallic sound.
 percussion instrument with metal bars and electrically driven rotating propellers under each bar that produces a vibrato sound, much used in jazz.
Percussion instrument that is a mellower version of the xylophone; of African origin.
Percussion instrument consisting of tuned blocks of wood suspended on a frame, laid out in the shape of a keyboard and struck with hard mallets.
Percussion instrument consisting of a hemispheric copper shell with a head of plastic or calfskin, held in place by a metal ring and played with soft or hard padded sticks. A pedal mechanism changes the tension of the head, and with it the pitch. Also kettledrums.
Brass instrument adapted from the tuba with a forward bell that is coiled to rest over the player’s shoulder for ease of carrying while marching.
Tenor-range brass instrument resembling the tuba. Also baritone horn.
Valved brass instrument resembling a bugle with a wide bell, used in jazz and commercial music.
Brass instrument that evolved from the earlier military, or field, trumpet.
Bass-range brass instrument that changes pitch through valves.
Tenor-range brass instrument that changes pitch by means of a movable double slide; there is also a bass version.
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Horn/French horn
Medium-range valved brass instrument that can be played “stopped” with the hand as well as open. Also French horn.
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Highest-pitched brass instrument that changes pitch through valves.Page 48
The placement of the lips, lower facial muscles, and jaws in playing a wind instrument.Page 48
Family of single-reed woodwind instruments commonly used in the concert and jazz band.Page 48
Double-reed woodwind instrument with the lowest range in the woodwind family.Page 48
Double-reed woodwind instrument with a low range.Page 48
Bass clarinet
Woodwind instrument with the lowest range of the clarinet family.Page 48
Single-reed woodwind instrument with a wide range of sizes.Page 48
The wide or bulbed opening at the end of a wind instrument.Page 48
English horn
Double-reed woodwind instrument, larger and lower in range than the oboe.Page 48
Soprano-range, double-reed woodwind instrument.Page 48
Very loud.Page 48
Smallest woodwind instrument, similar to the flute but sounding an octave higher.Page 48
Soprano-range woodwind instrument, usually made of metal and held horizontally.Page 47
Plucked-string instrument with a rounded body and fingerboard; used in some folk musics and in country-western music.Page 46
Plucked-string instrument with round body in the form of a single-headed drum and a long, fretted neck; brough to the Americas by African slaves.Page 46
Electric guitar
A guitar designed for electronic amplification.Page 45
Plucked-string instrument originally made of wood with a hollow resonating body and fretted fingerboard; types include acoustic and electric.Page 45
Broken chord in which the individual tones are sounded one after another instead of simultaneously.Page 45
Plucked-string instrument, triangular in shape with strings perpendicular to the soundboard.Page 45
Individual pure sounds that are part of any musical tone; in string instruments, crystalline tones in the very high register, produced by lightly touching a vibrating string at a certain point. Page 45
Mechanical device used to muffle the sound of an instrument.Page 45
Playing four notes simultaneously on a string instrument.Page 45
playing three notes simultaneously on a string instrument.Page 45
Playing two notes simultaneously on a string instrument.Page 45
Rapid slide through pitches of a scale.Page 45
Performance direction to pluck a string of a bowed instrument with the finger.Page 45
Short, detached notes, marked with a dot above then.Page 45
Smooth and connected; opposite of staccato.Page 45
Double bass/contrabass/bass viol
Largest and lowest-pitched member of the bowed string family. Also called contrabass or bass viol.Page 44
Bowed-string instrument with a middle-to-low range and dark, rich sonority; lower than a viola. Also cello.Page 44
To perform the same notes with more than one voice or instrument, either at the same pitch level or an octave higher or lower.Page 44
Bowed-string instrument of middle range; the second-highest member of the violin family.Page 44
Soprano, or highest-ranged, member of the bowed-string instrument family.Page 44
To sound the strings of an instrument using fingers or a plectrum or pick.Page 43
A slightly curved stick with hair or fibers attached at both ends, drawn over the strings of an instrument to set them in motion.Page 43
Mechanism that generates musical vibrations and transmits them into the air.Page 39
Specific area in the range of an instrument or voice.Page 39
Highest-ranged voice, normally possessed by women or boys.Page 40
Female voice of the middle range.Page 40
Lowest of the female voices. Also contralto.Page 40
Male voice of high range. Also a part, often structural, in polyphony.Page 40
Male voice of the moderately low range.Page 40
Lowest of the male voices.Page 40
Small fluctuation of pitch used as an expressive device to intensify a sound.Page 40
Instruments such as a flute, whistle, or horn that produce sound by usint air as the primary vibrating means.Page 41
Instrument that produces sound from a vibrating string stretched between two points; the string may be set in motion by bowing, striking, or plucking.Page 41
Instrument that produces sound from the substance of the instrument itself by being struck, blown, shaken, scraped, or rubbed. Examples inlude bells, rattles, xylophones, and cymbals.Page 41
Any instrument that produces sound tightly stretched membranes that can be struck, plucked, rubbed, or sung into (setting the skin in vibration).Page 41
Rate of speed or pace of music.
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Element of musical expression relating to the degree of loudness or softness, or volume, of a sound.
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